NUTRITIONAL SUPPLEMENTS — the natural and synthesized chemical compounds intended for introduction to foodstuff by their production, storage or transportation, but in itself not used by the person as foodstuff or usual components of food. Items of can be applied for the purpose of preservation of nutritional value of foodstuff, improvement and acceleration of its technological processing, increase in shelf-lifes of foodstuff, and also for the purpose of conservation, preservation or deliberate change of organoleptic properties of a product (its color, a smell, a consistence), simplification of packaging and transportation and so forth. The substances added to foodstuff for increase in nutritional value or with to lay down. - professional, the purposes (vitamins, microelements, amino acids etc.), and also spices, spices P. of are not considered. The pesticides, biologically active agents used in the livestock specialist and veterinary science, growth-promoting factors etc., in residual quantities getting to foodstuff, and also the substances which are a part of lubricants of the equipment or material of which the container is made to P. of do not belong and considered as the foreign substances contaminating food.
P.'s use by for concealment of damage or a poor quality of raw materials and ready foodstuff is not allowed.
According to article 27 of Bases of the legislation of USSR and federal republics about health care P.'s use by is allowed only with the permission of M3 of the USSR. The order of introduction of P. of is regulated by the «Health regulations on use of nutritional supplements» approved by M3 of the USSR in 1978.
As P. drugs which harmlessness for the person is confirmed with special researches taking into account possible receipt them in an organism with food can be used by. At the same time drug is investigated on toxicity and a mutagenicity, a blastomogennost, teratogenecity, and also study its influence on nutritional value of a product. On the basis of such researches admissible concentration of P. of in a product, however taking into account the size of the smallest concentration of P. of at which it is reached tekhnol, effect is established. In the USSR bodies of health care as P. it is authorized to apply apprx. 200 substances and drugs.
Performance specification to P. of, including their physical. - chemical properties, degree of purity, etc., are defined by normative and technical documents (state standard specification, technical specifications) for released by P. Control of correctness of use of P. of, their quality, and also of contents them in foodstuff is carried out by production laboratories of the enterprises of the food industry and bodies of the state sanitary inspection.
The item of can be grouped adhering funkts. - tekhnol. the principle though separate P. can be applied by with various purposes. «Health regulations on use of nutritional supplements» (1978) approved P.'s classification by on which they are divided into acids, the bases, salts; preservatives; antioxidants and their synergists; the substances interfering caking and balling up of foodstuff; emulsifiers, stabilizers of a consistence, surfactants; substances for processing of flour (bleaches, etc.); dyes natural and synthetic; the fragrances and substances increasing aroma and taste; artificial sweet substances; fermental drugs; organic solvents; sorbents, clarifiers, flocculants; other nutritional supplements. The given classification practically matches the classification established to WHO.
Acids, the bases and salts add to foodstuff as pH regulators of the environment, a baking powder, plavitely, and also for change of flavoring properties of products and drinks. The most widespread P. relating to this group except food acids (see), nek-ry salts phosphoric, lemon, milk to - t are. They are applied in production of processed cheeses (salt-plaviteli), at sterilization of milk to increase in its thermal stability. For neutralization of reaction of the environment at hydrolysis of proteinaceous products or inverting of sugars sodium hydroxides, potassium, potash, salt to - that are used. As a baking powder in production of a number of dough products hydrosodium carbonate, ammonium carbonate, potassium acid tartrate find application.
Preservatives apply to the prevention of damage of a product bacteria and fungi or for the purpose of decrease in the modes of thermal conservations (see). It is not allowed to enter chemical preservatives into such products as milk, oil, bread, flour, fresh meat, nurseries and specialized dietary foodstuff, and also into the products designated as «natural» or «fresh». For conservation of fruit and vegetable products, semi-finished products and wines widely use sulphurous to - that, its nek-ry salts, sulphurous anhydride. Content of sulphurous anhydride and other sulphurous drugs in semi-finished products (e.g., fruit and berry purees) and the products which are subject to heat treatment (e.g., dried fruit, potatoes, cabbage), can reach 500 — 3000 mg/kg. During the heating of such products there is their desulphitation and a considerable part of sulphurous anhydride is removed. In ready for application products the content of sulphurous anhydride within 2 — 20 mg/kg, in wines — 150 — 400 mg/l is allowed. The benzoic to - that and its sodium salt is applied for the purpose of increase in shelf-lifes of some soft drinks (concentration of the benzoic to - you can reach 100 mg/l), jams, egg melange (concentration of the benzoic to - you to 700 mg/kg), calves (concentration of the benzoic to - you to 1 — 2 g/kg). Effective preservative is sorbic to - that or its sodium salt, to-rye interfere with development of fungi. Sorbic to - that is added to fruit juices, margarine, mayonnaise, condensed milk, processed cheeses and other products in concentration of 300 — 1000 mg/kg. In some cases as preservatives apply natural compounds, napr, synthetic mustard oil add to wine to concentration 1,2 mg/l, lowlands — the antibiotic produced by Streptococcus lactis — to nek-ry vegetable canned food and processed cheeses for mitigation of the mode of heat treatment.
Antioxidants and their synergists add to fats for protection from oxidizing damage and rancidification. They inhibit oxidation fat to - t and formation of peroxides. The greatest anti-oxidizing activity tertiary butylated phenols and ethers gallic to - you have. In the USSR as antioxidants use buthylhydroxytoluene («ionol») or butyl hydroxyanisol, to-rye, however, it is authorized to enter only into nek-ry animal species of fats and margarine in quantity up to 200 mg/kg. Simultaneous introduction of small amounts lemon or ascorbic to - you or ascorbas of sodium increase efficiency of antioxidants.
The substances interfering caking and balling up of foodstuff (sodium chloride, the dried-up crushed vegetables, etc.) — talc, calcium stearate — represent nonwetting-sya powders; potassium ferrocyanide changes surface characteristics of crystals of salt. The main requirement imposed to these substances is that they shall not change organoleptic properties of foodstuff.
Emulsifiers, stabilizers of a consistence, surfactants (e.g., drugs of natural polysaccharides — an agar, an agaroid, sodium alginate, a не-амидированного of pectin, methyl ether of cellulose) use as zheleobrazovatel. In intestines these substances are practically not soaked up. With the expressed surface-active properties belong to P. mono - and diglycerides fat to - t, products of their etherification with acetic, lemon, wine to-tami. Use of emulsifiers (see. Emulsifiers food ) and stabilizers of a consistence it is usually regulated by reasons of technology. Concentration of a number of biologically neutral P. of of this group in foodstuff can reach 0,5% of all mass of a product. For needs of the separate industries of the food industry ready compositions of several surfactants on the compoundings coordinated with M3 of the USSR are issued.
Substances for processing of flour apply to whitening of flour for the purpose of improvement of its organoleptic properties, and also to improvement of baking qualities of flour. It substances with the expressed oxidation-reduction properties: potassium bromate (admissible concentration in flour to 40 mg/kg), calcium superoxide (admissible concentration to 20 mg/kg), sodium thiosulphate (admissible concentration to 50 mg/kg), cysteine and karbamin in small amounts. Processing of the flour intended for retail of by such P. is not allowed.
Natural and synthetic dyes are produced the food industry for coloring of some foodstuff and drinks (see. Food dyes ).
The fragrances and substances increasing aroma and taste of foodstuff apply to giving to products of specific aroma or strengthening of natural aroma and taste. For this purpose use food aromatic essences (see), the smoking drugs (which are specially received and condensates of smoke purified in the different ways), vanillin, ethylvanillin, diacetyl, and also glutamate of sodium (see). One of such P. of are intended only for processing of products from a surface, it is allowed to enter others into the mass of a product in quantities to 7 mg/kg. The individual fragrant substances used in compositions of fragrances can be divided into the following groups: the natural fragrant substances received by means of physical processing of vegetable raw materials (distillation, extraction, etc.); synthetic chemical substances identical to natural; the artificial fragrant substances which are not found in natural products. Addition of fragrances in foodstuff, as a rule, does not exceed the sizes defining natural concentration of individual fragrant substances in usual products.
Artificial sweet substances — saccharin and its sodium salt, sorbite, xylitol, etc.; abroad as P. use also cyclomate, aspartame (methyl ether of 1-aspartyl-1-phenylalanine), a mannitol. Sorbite and xylitol are almost also sweet, as well as sucrose, in an organism are acquired with release apprx. 4 kcal/g. Saccharin is 400 — 500 times more sweet than sucrose, is not acquired by an organism. In our country unlike many foreign countries artificial sweet substances (see) are applied very restrictedly, only to production of special dietary products on the compoundings approved by M3 of the USSR. The combination of artificial sweet substances among themselves or with sugar in the USSR is not allowed.
Fermental drugs widely use in the food industry for an intensification of separate stages tekhnol, processes, upgrading of foodstuff. They are applied, as a rule, at early production phases of this or that product and during the subsequent tekhnol, operations (heating, filtering, etc.) are inactivated. The most part of these drugs in our country and abroad is received from cultures of microorganisms (bacteria, fungi, yeast). Special attention is paid on mikrobiol, purity of fermental drugs, to-rye shall not contain viable forms of microorganisms — producers of enzymes. Fermental drugs are produced from strains of the microorganisms allowed M3 of the USSR.
The organic solvents relating to P. — extraction gasoline (hexane fractions), the ethyl purified alcohol, and also liquid carbonic acid — are used for receiving edible vegetable oils in the extraction way, in production of aromatic food essences, for receiving extracts from spices (from pepper, garlic, etc.).
Sorbents, clarifiers, flocculants use as P. when on technological or a gigabyte. reasons need to remove any undesirable components from foodstuff. As firm sorbents and filter mediums powder or fibrous materials of a mineral or organic origin (diatomite, bentonite, perlite, asbestos, bergmeal, active coal, cloth or cardboard filters), and also nek-ry are applied ionites (see). The main requirement imposed to these materials consists in what they shall be chemically steady and not allocate in a product undesirable in a gigabyte. relation of substances.
Other nutritional supplements use for selective elution of separate components from a product — these P. form insoluble compounds or complexes with such components. E.g., by means of anthranilic to - you delete gossypol from cotton oil, processing of wine materials with potassium ferrocyanide, sodium salt trimetilfosfono-howl to - you reduce the maintenance of ions of iron and other metals in wine, preventing its opacification. Control of completeness of sedimentation of entered by P. and the deleted components of a product or ensuring concentration of the remains, safe for health of the person, or the deleted, or entered substances is provided in these cases.
Bibliography: Borisochkina L. I. Antioxidants, preservatives, stabilizers, dyes, flavoring and aromatic substances in fishing industry, M., 1976; Hygiene of food, under the editorship of. K. S. Petrovsky, t. 2, page 307, M., 1971; Methods of the analysis of food, agricultural products and medical supplies, the lane with English, under the editorship of A. F. Namestnikov, M., 1974; Shtenberg A. I., Sewed l and Yu. I. N-ger ishevchenko M. G. Additives to foodstuff, M., 1969.
A. N. Zaytsev.