NUCLEAR PHYSICS — the section of physics devoted to studying of structure of an atomic nucleus, elementary particles, the mechanism of nuclear reactions and processes of radioactive decay. I. t. is fundamental science, the cut depends on progress completeness of knowledge of properties of matter and fundamental laws of the nature.
Practical application I. t. neobychaytso it is wide; in particular, in medicine of its achievement are used in diagnosis of various diseases (see P adioizotopny diagnosis, the Radio isotope research) and their treatment (see. Radiation therapy, Beta-ray therapy, Gamma therapy, Proton therapy, Neutron therapy, Electronic therapy). Achievements I. t. received use in medical radiology (see Radiology medical), made possible emergence and development of modern diagnostic methods, napr, a computer tomography (see the Tomography computer), a nuclear magnetic resonance nondestructive testing (see Nuclear magnetic resonance), etc. Progress I. t. promote development of nuclear power (see. Atomic industry), radiobiology (see), a radiochemistry, etc.
The nuclear physics has the various technical means including particle accelerators (see), nuclear reactors (see nuclear reactors) and watch facilities and measurements, in particular means of detecting of ionizing radiation (see). The modern dosimetry of ionizing radiation (see) serves for detection of ionizing radiation, definition of their look and a dose (see Doses of ionizing radiation). For the purpose of providing safe working conditions (see. A physics health), protection of the population (see. Radiation control, Antiactinic protection, Radiation safety) and the environment (see Environmental control) on the basis of methods of nuclear physics are developed methods and means of protection from ionizing radiation.
Bibliography: Bourne M. Atomic physics,
the lane with English, M., 1965; Shirokov Yu. M. and Yudin N. P. Nuclear physics, M., 1980; Shpolsky E. V. Atomic physics, t. 1 — 2, M., 1984.