YADOVYTY PLANTS — the plants which are developing and accumulating toxic agents to-rye cause poisonings in the person and in animals.
Toxicity of many plants is known long ago, however every year the number of again studied vegetable poisons increases. Toxicity of plants studies the special section of toxicology — phytotoxicology. In a crust, time more than 10 thousand species of plants are described (including about 400 in our country), to-rye can cause poisonings. List I. the rubles who are most often causing poisonings in the person; an area of their distribution in the territory of the USSR; the parts of plants containing toxics and the nature of effect of these substances on an organism are given in table 1. Outward of some noxious plants — see tsvetn. the tab., Art. 176, fig. 13 — 26.
Poisonings with vegetable poisons arise preferential in warm season at consumption of unknown plants or mushrooms, is frequent at children, especially younger age, to-rykh attracts beautiful and bright outward of many inedible berries and fruits. Also cases of production poisonings at cultivation, collecting, drying and processing of medicinal vegetable raw materials are noted. Acute poisonings with vegetable poisons can be caused by self-treatment and the use of tinctures from medicinal plants as alcoholic beverages.
Distinguish actually noxious plants, to-rye normal contain chemical substances, toxic for the person, and nontoxic cultivated plants, to-rye gain toxicity owing to change ykh chemical structure at the wrong storage or infection with fungi. So, in the tubers of potatoes which wintered in the field alkaloid the solanine causing dispeptic frustration collects. Poisonings develop at consumption of the bread baked of the rye infected with an ergot (see) and also crude haricot, hl. obr. white (see the Favism), and crude nuts of a beech. Honey from bees can gain toxic properties, to-rye collect nectar of plants, napr, a Labrador tea, having poisonous pollen. Such honey causes fever, vomiting, diarrhea.
Vegetable poisons belong preferential to alkaloids (see), to glycosides (see), to vegetable soaps (saponins), organic acids (hydrocianic, oxalic acids), pitches and hydrocarbons.
Alkaloids are usually presented by well water soluble salts and are quickly soaked up in a stomach and intestines. The originality of toxins of the glikozidny nature is that in a human body they break up to a carbohydrate (sugary) component and several toxicants.
Toxicity I. the river can sharply change depending on a stage of their development, local ecological (climatic, soil, etc.) conditions.
Sensitivity of the person and different types of animals to effect of vegetable poisons is various. E.g., the horse and a dog transfer approximately to 10 times, a pigeon by 100 times, and a frog by 1000 times high doses of alkaloids of opium, than the person (per 1 kg of body weight).
Majority I. rubles at the use them in food make sick, vomiting, abdominal pains, diarrhea. These symptoms are nonspecific and are caused by high content in juice of noxious plants various organic to - t, irritating mucous membrane of a stomach and intestines. In the further ambassador of absorption of vegetable poisons the symptom complex, specific to this type of poison, develops in blood. Absorption of the majority of vegetable poisons in blood happens in distal departments of a small bowel, and local irritant action increases the speed of their adsorption by a mucous membrane.
On selective toxicity of a plant can be divided into poisons with preferential impact on c. the N of page, heart, went. - kish. path, liver, skin.
Many vegetable poisons conducting at acute poisonings are defeats of a nervous system. Depending on character of poison in a wedge, a picture signs of dysfunction of c prevail. N of page with development of a cholinolytic (atropinopodobny) syndrome (e.g., at poisoning with a henbane, belladonna) or a nicotinosimilar syndrome (e.g., at poisoning to milestones poisonous, a horsetail, a hemlock spotty and nek-ry other plants). Mental disorders proceed in the form of intoksikatsionny psychosis with the phenomena of the sharp psychomotor excitement passing into a condition of devocalization and a coma. At poisoning of a ceremonious sowing campaign preferential damage of a spinal cord with the phenomena of spastic paralysis of the lower extremities is noted (see the Lathyrism). After consumption of flour from the grain containing impurity of a weed of a trikhodesma gray-haired the trikhodesmotok-sycosis develops (the disease meets preferential in Uzbekistan under the name «dzhaylantarsky encephalitis»). Distinctive feature of this disease is defeat of pyramidal system of a brain with development of a hemiparesis and tetraparesis (see. Food poisonings).
Preferential damage of heart is caused by the plants containing cardiac glycosides (a foxglove, a lily of the valley, an adonis, etc.). The main clinical manifestation of their toxic action is the prematurity of disturbance of a rhythm and conductivity of heart.
A number of noxious plants possesses a hepatotoxic action (the heliotrope trimmed a groundsel, etc.). At poisoning they note increase in a liver, jaundice, a hemorrhagic enanthesis. The special place among I, river is occupied by mushrooms, in particular the death angel causing damages of a liver and kidneys (see Mushrooms, poisoning with mushrooms).
Acute poisonings with nek-ry plants, napr, a cow-parsnip, cause generally damage of skin — toxic dermatitis, to-ry has a favorable current. Complications are noted in rare instances and are expressed by hypersensitivity to poisons of these plants.
Diagnosis of acute poisonings with vegetable poisons has preferential a wedge, character and is based on identification of symptoms of selective toxicity and on anamnestic data. Lab. the toxicological diagnosis directed to quantitative and qualitative test of poison in an organism is developed insufficiently and is applied practically only to diagnosis of poisonings with cardiac glycosides and quinine. The main toxic effects caused the most widespread I. the river of flora of the USSR, a characteristic wedge, symptoms of poisonings and an action of the acute management given in similar cases are given in table 2.
Many noxious plants have toxic effect at the same time on several bodies or systems of an organism; e.g., poison of monk's-hood strikes c. the N of page and heart, Lobel's false hellebore and a foxglove — heart also went. - kish. a path, the heliotrope trimmed — a liver and kidneys. However selective toxic effect on a certain body is always shown earlier and at a smaller dose of poison. In the most hard cases of acute poisonings with high doses practically of any vegetable poison development of coma (a loss of consciousness, disturbance of speed and a rhythm of cordial reductions, disorder of breath) is possible.
Treatment of acute poisonings I. the river in many respects corresponds to the standard methods of controlling with exogenous toxicoses and consists in early use complex (as a part of actions for the emergency detoxication of an organism) and symptomatic therapy.
At peroral poisonings to the patient suggest to drink 1 — 2 glass of warm water with sodium chloride (V2 chayn. l. on a glass of water) also cause vomiting. This procedure is repeated by 3 — 4 times. As a sorbent it is possible to apply 80 — 100 g of black crackers or 10 — 15 tablets of active coal (Carbolenum). Then give salt laxative — magnesium sulfate (30 g on 1/2 glasses of water).
The main action of medical assistance at a pre-hospital stage is the gastric lavage via the probe and intake of 80 — 100 g of active coal in the form of a water suspension.
Symptomatic therapy of acute poisonings with vegetable poisons is based on the principle of maintenance of function of the bodies which are preferential struck by this poison. Special antidotal therapy is developed
insufficiently fully to have independent clinical value. The exception makes use of pharmacological antagonists (physostigmine at a cholinolytic syndrome, atropine at a muskarinopodobny syndrome).
At the poisoning with heart poisons which is followed by the expressed disturbances of a rhythm and conductivity of heart well proved in a wedge, practice a method of hemosorption (see t. 10, additional materials) in combination with the electrostimulating therapy. The method of hemosorption is applied also to treatment of a serious poisoning of pale it is nasty
which, and its early use (1 — the 2nd days after poisoning) allows to avoid development in patients of hepatonephric insufficiency.
As the majority of vegetable poisons belongs to the category of the krupnomolekulyarny or middlemolecular connections which are well giving in to extraction from an organism by means of a sorbent, hemosorption is shown at all types of a serious poisoning as a method of an active detoxication.
Prevention of poisonings I. the river consists in the basic in carrying out among the population a dignity. - a gleam.
works on acquaintance with local types I. river, to an explanation of harm and possible effects of self-treatment by infusions and other drugs of herbs, and also a travolecheniye at persons without vocational medical education. Special attention should be paid to holding lectures and conversations with children, to teach them to distinguish I. river from nontoxic to warn about possible effects of consumption of unfamiliar plants. Around kindergartens, schools, summer camps noxious plants need to be destroyed.
See also Medicinal plants, Poisonings.
Table 1. The LIST of the NOXIOUS PLANTS which are MOST OFTEN CAUSING POISONINGS IN the PERSON; The AREA of THEIR DISTRIBUTION in the territory of the USSR; PARTS of PLANTS, the CONTAINING TOXIC VESHESTVA, And the NATURE of EFFECT of THESE SUBSTANCES ON the ORGANISM (TOKSIKODINAMIKA)
Table 2. The MAIN TOXIC EFFECTS CAUSED by the MOST WIDESPREAD NOXIOUS PLANTS of FLORA of the USSR, CHARACTERISTIC CLINICAL SIGNS of POISONING AND the ACTION of ACUTE MANAGEMENT
the Bibliography: Gusynin I. A. Toksi
kologiya of noxious plants, M., 1962; Acute management at acute poisonings, under the editorship of S. N. Golikov, M., 1977; Toxicology, ed. by L. J. Casarett a. J. Doull, N. Y., 1975. E. A. Luzhnikov.