NORWAY

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

NORWAY, the Kingdom of Norway — the state in the north of Europe occupying the western and northern parts of the Scandinavian peninsula. The area is 324 thousand sq.km, together with a special administrative unit — Svalbard archipelago (62 thousand sq.km), islands Yang-Mayen and other islands of 387 thousand sq.km. Population of 4081 thousand people (1980). The capital — Oslo (458 thousand zhit., 1979). Administrative division — 20 fyulka (areas), including Oslo and Bergen. Are divided Fyulke into 450 parish and city communes. Ofits. language — Norwegian.

NORWAY

Svalbard archipelago is behind the Polar circle; in it St. 1 thousand islands. There is no indigenous people. Lives apprx. 1,2 thousand Norwegian and 2,3 thousand Soviet citizens occupied with coal mining. On the archipelago of 2 Soviet settlements — Barents-burg and Pirimida. The governor manages Spitsbergen, to-rogo the king N. V of 1947 appoints the Norwegian storting adopted the resolution noting special economic interests of the USSR on Spitsbergen and in its territorial waters.

N — constitutional monarchy. The head of state — the king. The legislature belongs to a storting (parliament), resolutions to-rogo later signature the king get force of the law. Executive power is in hands of the king, to-ry appoints the State Council (government).

N — the highland. Nearly 2/3 of its territories lie at height of St. 500 m above sea-level. Lowlands borrow narrow, in 40 — 50 km, a seaside strip on Yu. and V. of the country.

Climate monsoonal midlatitudes, on Far North subarctic, in coastal districts oceanic with soft winter. Summer cool with steady rains and strong winds. Apprx. 1/3 territories lies behind the Polar circle.

N — the developed industrial and agrarian capitalist country. The leading industries are the mechanical engineering and metal working, shipbuilding, electrometallurgy, electrochemistry, electronics, pulp-and-paper production. An important role in economy is played by sea navigation (10% of gross national product). The country is high on the list in the world on a catch of fish (2,5 million t in 1978) is also the largest exporter of fish (a cod, a herring) and fish products.

In agriculture small-scale and average farms prevail. The main specialization — milk and meat livestock production; the crop production is oriented to production of forages.

Apprx. 98% of the population — Norwegians; also Sami and kvena (the Norwegian Finns), Swedes, Danes, Germans, etc. live. The population is placed unevenly: near Oslo - fior - yes (V3 of the territory of the country) St. U2 of the population, or more than 50 people on 1 km' 2, and in sowing lives. districts — less than 2 people on 1 km '2. On average population density apprx. 13 people on 1 ot2, apprx. 1/8 population lives behind the Polar circle.

The natural movement of the population in 1969 — 1978, on ofitsa. it is presented to the data published in editions of WHO in the table.

The average duration of the forthcoming life in 1976 made for men 72,1 years, for women 78,3 years.

Incidence is characterized by dominance hron, diseases. In 40 682 cases of death registered in 1978 (1002,3 on 100 thousand people), rate of mortality from diseases of cardiovascular system made 467,1 on 100 thousand, or 46,6%, and from a coronary disease of heart — 259,7, or 25,9% of all cases of death; from malignant new growths — 204,6 (20,8%); a stroke — 137,2 (13,8%); diseases of a respiratory organs — 83,2 (8,4%); accidents, poisonings and injuries — 58,9 (5,9%); diseases of digestive organs — 24,2 (2,4%), urinogenital system — 14,8 (1,5%), a nervous system and sense bodys — 11,3 (1,1%); from diabetes — 8,5 (0,8%); inf. and parasitic diseases — 7,1 (0,7%).

In 1976 in the country were registered inf. diseases: diarrhea virus — St. 56 thousand cases, a streptococcal infection — apprx. 50 thousand, inf. parotitis — apprx. 22,4 thousand, measles — 3,2 thousand, whooping cough — apprx. 1,1 thousand, bacterial food poisoning — 809 cases, inf. hepatitis — 471, a salmonellosis — 308, isolated cases of dysentery, typhoid and paratyphoid. Also 280 cases of early syphilis, 14 156 — gonorrhoeas, 128 cases of other veins are revealed. diseases.

Organization of health care. Bears responsibility for health care mines - in social put, in structure to-rogo there is a directorate of health services headed by the CEO. As a part of directorate there are departments knowing questions of activity of local bodies of health care, financing and shots, psychiatry, hygiene, work of drugstores, dental surgery service and activity of BC. The health service of area is headed by the inspector of health care, to-ry monitors implementation of the legislation on sanitation and health care, and also controls activity of medical institutions. He heads the regional committee dealing with issues of social insurance. In each city or rural commune there is a council for health care headed by the inspector of health care. Council will organize work of services of hygiene, work on fight with inf. diseases, health protection of a family, school hygiene, mental health care and dignity. to education. The inspector of health care in rural communes is at the same time general practitioner and renders medical aid to the population. Planning of health care according to the law of 1970 is assigned to health services of areas; plans are approved by the government.

Since January, 1971 the new system of social insurance is entered into N., edges are covered by all population of the country; its budget forms from special and the usual taxes paid by the population and also contributions of businessmen, local authorities and the state. At the expense of system of social insurance 80% of expenses on rendering extra hospital medical aid, a part of expenses on acquisition of drugs (other part the patient pays), services of physiotherapists, nek-ry types of the dental surgery help are paid, and also various grants and pensions are given. Monthly workers and employees for needs of social security pay apprx. 10% of the salary.

Stationary help. In 1975 in the country 866 BCs and other medical institutions on 56 636 beds (141,3 beds on 10 thousand population), from them 577 state BCs (43 730 beds) and 289 private BCs (12 906 beds) functioned. Among them 72-tsy the general type on 19 314 beds on a profile: therapy — 5541 beds, the general surgery — 5787, obstetrics — 1354, obstetrics and gynecology — 417, pediatrics — 796, inf. diseases — 100, dermatology — 263, neurology — 595, radiology and radiotheraphy — 34, rheumatology — 77, gynecology — 585, ophthalmology — 513, otorhinolaryngology — 671, orthopedics — 313, plastic surgery — 147, stomatology — 21, rehabilitation — 240, tuberculosis and other pulmonary diseases — 450, psychiatry — 768, neuropsychiatry — 109, hron, diseases — 31, geriatrics — 355 and 147 beds without indication of type. There were also 78 local and rural BCs on 2025 beds, 509 houses of sisterly leaving on 19 445 beds. The specialized network of medical institutions was presented by 2 maternity hospitals (71 beds), 1 onkol,-tsey (353 beds), 4 orthopedic-tsami (401 beds), 5 centers of rehabilitation (591 beds), 6 revmatol,-tsami (549 beds), 4 tubercular-tsami (217 beds), 21 psychiatric-tsey (8121 beds), 126 shelters for mentally sick (4374 beds), 1-tsey for patients with epilepsy (172 beds), 37 another specialized-tsami (1003 beds). In the general bed fund of nearly 24% of beds it is intended for treatment of mentally sick.

Activity of the state BCs is financed by bodies of health care of areas (for 50%), and also by national insurance (50%). Stationary medical aid in-tsakh free.

Extra hospital medical aid to the population of rural districts is rendered by doctors — inspectors of public health care and private medical practitioners, in the cities — polyclinic departments of BC and private medical practitioners. According to the law on development primary medical - a dignity. the help and expansion of preventive maintenance of the population in 1973 20 centers of health were open, in to-rykh there is a small amount of beds, but out-patient treatment of the population is generally carried out. Specialized extra hospital medical aid is rendered by polyclinic departments of BC.

In 1972 in the country functioned apprx. 1400 centers of health protection of mother and the child. Prenatal service is, as a rule, carried out by the general practitioner. In 1972 apprx. 99% of all childbirth it was accepted in obstetrical institutions. To 90% of children of the first year of life there were under regular observation of the doctor, school students — under control of service of school hygiene. Medical - a dignity. help to workers of the industrial enterprises was given by 2100 first-aid posts at the enterprises (all by these points it was captured apprx. 335 thousand working). (The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of N. not completely correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR — see JI echebno-preventive institutions abroad.)

Sanitarno - epidemic actions carry out local authorities under the leadership of inspectors of health care. Vaccination against poliomyelitis, smallpox, diphtheria, whooping cough, tetanus, measles and tuberculosis is widely carried out to N.

Resorts. In N. there are balneological resorts of Larvik, San-nefyord (sulphatic mineral waters, to lay down. dirt, sea bathings), on zap. the coast — the climatic station Bergen, near Oslo — klimatogryazevy the resort Khanka.

Shots and education. In 1977 in N. there were 7468 doctors (18,3 on 10 thousand people), 4010 dentists, St. 23 700 nurses and nurses-midwifes, apprx. 17 000 assistants to the nurse, more than 3400 physiotherapists, St. 1400 druggists and apprx. 700 assistants to the druggist. From total number of doctors apprx. 2000 it was employed in service of primary medical aid, apprx. 600 worked as inspectors of health care.

Training of doctors is carried out on 2 f-takh high fur boots in Oslo and Bergen. In 1972 it was released apprx. 200 doctors, duration of training of 6 — 61/*2 years. Training of dentists is conducted at 2 schools, nurses — in 29 schools, assistants to the nurse — at 42 schools, midwifes — at 2 schools, laboratory assistants — at 9 schools, druggists — in 1 educational institution; the term of their training — 5 years.

Medical researches are conducted Ying volume of public hygiene and other scientific in-ta, and also-tsami and high fur boots.

Medical industry and pharmaceutical business. In the late sixties in N. functioned 281 drugstores, 7 branches of drugstores and apprx. 1 thousand points of sale of the limited range of proprietary medicines. In a number of drugstores produce tablets, candles, hmaz, to-rye they sell in other drugstores (25% of tablets are produced in such drugstores). In the country there are enterprises for production of pharmaceuticals and the medical equipment, napr, devices for measurement of pulse, pressure, record of the cardiogram and transfer of these data on phone.

Table. VITAL RATES of NORWAY in 1969 — 1978 (on 1000 people)




Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972). page 249, Geneva, WHO, 1977; Sixth report on the world health situation (1973 — 1977), pt 2, p. 224, Geneva, WHO, 1980; World Health Statistics Annual 1978, v. 1 — 3, Geneva, 1978 — 1979.


V. B. Tsybulsky.

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