NOOTROPIC MEANS (Greek noos a thought + tropos the direction) — the pharmaceuticals improving mental processes.
Pages carry the psychogogic drugs improving metabolic processes vts to N. N of page. All famous N. pages strengthen in various ways metabolic effects at - aminobutyric to - you are (GAMK). Include in group H. of page: GAMK in the form of drug Aminalonum (see. Piperidic acid ), its cyclic derivative piracetam (a synonym nootropil), the vitamin connections containing GAMK as active group (e.g., Pantogamum), drugs of vitamin B 6 , to-ry participates in transformations of GAMK (e.g., Pyriditolum).
Unlike psychomotor stimulators like Phenaminum or caffeine H. of page at single use in therapeutic doses do not exert noticeable impact on spontaneous and uslovnoreflektorny behavior of animals and mental processes at healthy people. N of page do not cause also visible shifts of bioelectric activity of bark and subcrustal structures of a brain, size and latency of conditioned reflexes, the nature of motility, do not change the usual indicators of activity of cardiovascular system, breath and other vegetative functions estimated during the screening of pharmaceuticals. Identification of therapeutic action of N. of page requires prolonged, systematic use of drugs (within several weeks or months). In an experiment on animals after a hypoxia, a cerebral injury or alcoholic poisonings of N. of page recover behavior, conditionally reflex activity, picture EEG. According to a wedge, to observations children with organic diseases of a brain and the pages which are badly acquiring a training material under the influence of N. become more attentive, their mood is leveled, learning efficiency increases. At patients with disturbances of cerebral circulation of N. of page increase mental activity, intellectual working capacity and interest in surrounding.
Improvement of mental processes is connected with the direct normalizing N.'s impact by the village on energy balance of nervous cells, probably, due to imitation of the GAMK metabolic properties, like N.'s cut of page increase respiratory activity of nervous tissue, being utilized as substrates of breath, or stimulate fermental systems of a tricarbonic acid cycle. Thanks to a combination of such effects of N. of page have the expressed anti-hypoxemic effect. At the same time their properties are not connected, obviously, with primary normalization of a brain hemodynamics and influence on a synoptic role of GAMK, edge comes down to providing pre-and postsynaptic brake processes in various systems of the central neurons. It is possible to judge it because N. pages do not increase the maintenance of GAMK in synapses to the level necessary for implementation of mediator function.
Except psychotropic properties, separate N. villages have moderate anticonvulsant activity, at regular use can cause a nek-swarm decrease in the system ABP (especially in the conditions of the previous hypertensia).
Depending on features of effect of separate drugs of the indication to N.'s use by the village vary a little. However for all drugs there is also a number of the general indications. First of all N. pages apply to elimination of the intellectual insufficiency connected with disturbances of cerebral circulation of various etiology (atherosclerosis, a hypertension, chronic tserebrososudisty insufficiency, regional vascular defeats after a stroke and brain injuries). Besides, N. villages use at alcoholic weak-mindedness and at children with lag of intellectual development, decrease in a mental and physical activity. In all cases when there are no heavy and far come defects, long therapy of N. of page promotes revival of mentality, increase in attention, improvement of the speech and quality indicators of mental work. At children under the influence of N. the page noted more bystry solution of verbal tasks, increase in a lexicon. In psychiatry piracetam, Pyriditolum and Pantogamum can be applied in combination with other psychotropic drugs at treatment of schizophrenia, maniac-depressive psychosis, the residual phenomena of neuroinfections. At mentally sick, resistant to psychotropic drugs, against the background of N.'s treatment by the village there is an increase in wakefulness, skill to communicate and mood improves, in case of dominance of block slackness, apathy disappear, proper emotional responses are recovered. At N.'s use by the village easing of toxic properties of drugs from other groups of psychotropic drugs is possible.
N of page are low-toxic connections and are well had. In some cases side effect of N. of page is shown by a sleep disorder, fluctuations of the ABP, nausea.
See also Psychogogic means .
Bibliography: Avrutsky G. Ya. and Laskova N. B. Some principles of the differentiated use of drugs of metabolic therapy in complex treatment of mental diseases, Zhurn, a neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 79, No. 8, page 1077,1979; Mashkovsky M. D., Roshchina L. F. and Polezhayev A. I. Some features of pharmacological effect of piracetam, Pharm, and toksikol., t. 40, No. 6, page 676, 1977; In about i s s i e of of J. - R. Donnees phar-macologiques et biochimiques fondamen-tales sur ia therapeutique nootrope, Thera-peutique, t. 49, p. 717, 1973.
E. B. Arushanyan.