NOBEL PRIZES — the international awards founded by Swedish to an inzha not rum chemist and the inventor Alfred Nobel (A. Nobel, 1833 — 1896) and awarded annually for outstanding achievements in the field of physics, chemistry, physiology or medicine, literature and for strengthening of the world between the people. In 1968. The national bank of Sweden founded in addition N. the item for works in the field of economy. According to A. Nobel's will the capital which remained after his death made the Nobel Foundation (originally St. 31 million Swedish kronur); these means were placed in stocks, bonds, loans, the income from to-rykh annually is divided into 5 equal parts and is awarded in a form H.
of the item H. of the item award according to A. Nobel's will, the Swedish Royal academy of Sciences (in the field of physics and chemistry), Royal Carolinian medicochirurgical in-t (in the field of physiology or medicine), the Swedish academy (in the field of literature), the Norwegian Nobel committee appointed by parliament (for strengthening of the world between the people).
According to the Charter of the Nobel Foundation of N. of the item nationalities, a floor and religion and, as a rule, once are awarded to scientists, writers and public figures irrespective of race. Posthumously N. are not awarded by the item. The award can be awarded to one or several persons.
The winner N. of the item receives a gold medal with A. Nobel's (fig.) image, with the corresponding text, the diploma and a reward in the form of the check for the determined sum, the size the cut depends on profits of the Nobel Foundation, as a rule, from 30 to 70 thousand dollars.
The ceremony of delivery of N. of the item takes place in Stockholm with participation of the Swedish king and in Oslo in anniversary of death of A. Nobel, on December 10 annually. In case of non receipt of an award till October 1 of the next year the reward is returned to the Nobel Foundation; the gold medal and the diploma can be received later. The Nobel laureate within 6 months after receiving an award shall act in Stockholm or Oslo with the so-called Nobel lecture popularizing its work.
Information on a ceremony of delivery of N. of the item, texts of lectures and the biography of winners are published in the annual edition «Les Prix Nobel» leaving since 1904
N. of the item on physiology or medicine awarded on the basis of recommendations of the Nobel committee and as a result of consideration Nobel in-volume, organized in 1900 at Carolinian medikokhirurgichesky in-those, the scientific and practical value of a contribution of the researcher. At Nobel in-those are formed departments of biochemistry (1937), neurophysiology (1945), on studying of a cell and genetics (1945).
In the field of physiology or medicine not the organizations, and members of teachers Royal Carolinian medicochirurgical in-that use the right of nomination of candidates for N.'s receiving of the item, medical sections of the Swedish Royal academy of Sciences, medical faculties of high fur boots of Uppsala, Lund, Oslo, Copenhagen and Helsinki, winners of Nobel Prizes in physiology or medicine of last years, and also competent physicians-teachers and scientists (not less than 6) of various countries, to-rye annually are replaced Carolinian medikokhirurgichesky in-volume.
Preliminary discussion and vote take place in a situation of strict privacy, and in November the final decision which is not subject to cancellation or the appeal is passed.
From 1901 to 1980 items on physiology or medicine are awarded by N. to 129 scientists. Among N. winners of the item outstanding scientists whose opening made a fundamental contribution to development of science. So, in 1904 for researches of physiology of processes of digestion N. was awarded by the item to I. P. Pavlov, in 1905 for opening of the causative agent of tuberculosis — to R. Koch, in 1907 for opening of the causative agent of malaria — to A. Laveran, in 1908 for development of the theory of immunity — to I. I. Mechnikov and P. Ehrlich, in 1909 for works on pathology, physiology and surgery of a thyroid gland to T. Kokher, in 1913 for opening of a phenomenon of an anaphylaxis — Sh. Richet, in 1914 for researches on physiology and pathology of a vestibular mechanism — River. Barracks, in 1930 for definition of blood groups at the person to K. Landshteyner, in 1932 for researches of function of neurons to Ch. Sherrington and E. Adrian, in 1933 for a research of function of chromosomes in transfer of heredity — T. To Morgan, in 1939 for introduction of connections of group of streptocides to practice of treatment of bacterial infections — to G. Domagk, in 1945 for receiving penicillin and its use in the medical practician — to A. Fleming, Cheyn (E. V. Chain) and G. Florey, in 1962 for creation of the DNA model — F. To shout, J. Watson and Wilkins (M.H.P. of Wilkins), etc. After Great October socialist revolution of N. of the item on physiology and medicine by the Soviet scientist were not awarded though their world achievements are well-known. It testifies to a certain tendentiousness of the Nobel committee during the definition of the opening deserving award of Nobel Prizes.
Bibliography: Table N. Alfred Nobel and Nobel Prizes, the lane with shvedsk., Stockholm, 1964; In e r g e n g of e n E. Alfred Nobel, The man and his work, L. — N. Y., 1962; Nobel lectures, including presentation speeches and laureates’ biographies, Physiology or medicine, 1901 — 1921, 1922 — 1941, 1942 — 1962, 1963 — 1970, Amsterdam, 1964 — 1972; R i e d m a n S. R. a. Gustafson E. T. Portraits of Nobel laureates in medicine and physiologv, L. — N. Y., 1963.
B. D. Petrov, P. S. Rabinovich.