NITRO COMPOUNDS — the organic matters incorporating a nitrogrupia (NO 2 ), connected with carbon atom or nitrogen. Depending on the radical connected to nitrogroup, N. share on aliphatic and aromatic.
Aliphatic N. (nitromethane, nitroethane, nitropropane, nitroform, tetranitromethane, chloropicrin, etc.) apply as solvents and initial products to synthesis of polymers. These substances — generally colorless liquids with a smell of ether, not a rastvorima or badly rastvorima in water, are reactionary capable and explosive. Aromatic N. (nitrobenzene, nitroto-luola, nitroxylols, nitronaftalina, dinitrobenzene, dinitrobenzene chloride, etc.) apply in production of aniline, soap, explosive substances, organic dyes.
Come to N.'s organism through upper respiratory tracts, went. - kish. path and unimpaired skin. Are allocated with urine. Possess narcotic, sharp irritant action and are capable to cause a fluid lungs (chloropicrin); nek-ry of them, napr, nitroparaffin, is capable to form a methemoglobin; nit-rotsiklogeksan, except narcotic action, can cause dystrophic changes in parenchymatous bodies.
Recommended to maximum allowable concentration for nitro-methane, nitroethane, nitropropane — 30 mg/m 3 , for nitroform — 0,5 mg/m 3 , for tetranitromethane — 0,3 mg/m 3 , for nitrocyclohexane — 1 mg/m 3 .
A clinical picture of poisonings
At acute poisoning with aliphatic N., in particular chloropicrin, at victims observes dacryagogue, cough, sometimes with a bloody phlegm, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pains, a diarrhea, a headache, muscular weakness, a frequent low pulse, at action on skin — strongly expressed dermatitis (see). There can come death from fluid lungs (see). The prof. of poisoning with other N of an aliphatic series are not described.
Acute poisoning with aromatic N. is followed by decrease in hemoglobin and number of erythrocytes in blood, methemoglobinemia (see), edges there can come also in the absence of external the wedge, symptoms of poisoning, yellowish-brown coloring of skin of hands and persons. Complaints to weakness, a headache, dizziness, nausea, vomiting are possible. Diagnostic value can have definition in blood of sulfhemoglobin, especially in combination with a methemoglobin (by Van-Slayka's method), and Heinz's little bodies. At acute poisoning reduction of maintenance of a methemoglobin goes slowly (up to 11 days), and the increased content of sulfhemoglobin (several times exceeding norm) can be observed within a month. In hard cases of poisoning the loss of consciousness, sharp cyanosis of integuments, disturbance of breath and cordial activity, a spasm is noted. Later damage of a liver and kidneys joins. Death comes in coma at disturbance of breath and cordial activity.
Hron, poisoning with both aromatic, and aliphatic N. is followed by weakness, paresthesia, sleeplessness, excitement. Gradually anemia, jaundice, cyanosis accrue; the liver is increased in the beginning, then reduced (atrophy).
First aid and treatment at poisoning N (aromatic and aliphatic) are identical. At the first symptoms of poisoning of the victim it is necessary to remove immediately in a zone of a pure air, at the expressed irritant action — to replace clothes and linen. Rest, heat, washing of mucous membranes of eyes, a nose, oral cavity by water or 2% solution of boric acid are recommended, in eyes dig in 2% solution of novocaine; at cough give codeine (0,015 g) or libexinum (0,1 — 0,2 g). Intramusculary appoint 1 — 2 ml of 2,5% of solution of Pipolphenum or 1 ml of 1% of solution of Dimedrol. At a serious poisoning hospitalization is necessary. Treatment hron, N.'s poisonings symptomatic.
sealing of the production equipment, its effective ventilation, distance steering by technological processes Are necessary. Apply the filtering gas mask of brand A to protection of a respiratory organs against vapors, and in the presence of dust — respirators of RU-60M, RPG-67, «Aster-2», etc. (see. Gas masks , Respirators ), protective tight points. For protection of skin — rational overalls and protective gloves, regular change of linen are obligatory, at hit of substances on clothes — immediate change of clothes and linen, at hit on skin — bystry washing off by warm, but not hot water. After each change are obligatory washing in soul, regular washing of overalls. Working shall have reserve sets of overalls, linen, gloves, footwear; the contaminated overalls before washing are processed by a hot steam and air.
Working there take place preliminary and periodic medical examinations. Women are not allowed to work at technological stages in production of nitro compounds of benzene, toluene, nitroaniline, trinitrotoluene. Constant control behind the content of vapors and aerosols of these substances in air is necessary.
Bibliography: Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and E. N. Levina, t. 2, page 210, L., 1976; H e to l of e with about in and I. D. and Kudrin M. A. Comparative toxicological property of some chlorine-nitroparaffin, Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 12, page 79, 1969; Occupational diseases, under the editorship of A. A. Letavet, etc., page 300, M., 1973; Stepanenko B. N. Course of organic chemistry, page 341, 382, M., 1972.
A. V. Roshchin.