NITROBENZENE (C 6 H 5 NO 2 ) - a yellowish oily liquid with an aromatic smell.
The N is applied as an initial product to receiving explosive substances, in production of aniline and other dyes, soaps, in the perfumery industry as odorous substance. Is strong toxicant.
Pier. weight. 123,11, plotn. at t ° 20 ° 1,2, t ° pl 5,7 °, t ° kip 210,9 °, elasticity of vapors H. at t ° 20 ° 0,26 mm of mercury. It is well dissolved in alcohol, ether, we will badly dissolve in water.
Maximum allowable concentration of nitrobenzene in air of a working zone of 3 mg/m 3 , in the atmosphere of the inhabited places of 0,008 mg/mg, in water of reservoirs of sanitary household purpose of 0,2 mg/l.
Gets to an organism through a respiratory organs, it is well soaked up through skin. Poisonings both acute, and chronic arise at disturbance tekhnol, process, and also safety regulationss. The use of alcoholic beverages increases sensitivity to N.
the Clinical picture of poisonings
Acute poisoning of N. is shown by a headache, disorder of coordination movements (see), general weakness, spasms (see), decrease or absence tendon jerks (see), cordial weakness, methemoglobinemia. A characteristic symptom of acute poisoning of N. is a peculiar livid coloring of visible mucous membranes and skin, intensity a cut depends on weight of intoxication; from a mouth — a smell of bitter almonds. At hron, poisonings along with above-mentioned characteristic signs the asthenic phenomena are observed (see. Asthenic syndrome ), the damage of a liver which is followed by its increase and pain in right hypochondrium, a subikterichnost of scleras, anemia, increase in content of bilirubin in blood and urobilin in urine.
The diagnosis of poisoning of N. is made on the basis of the anamnesis, by a wedge, pictures, blood test (a methemoglobinemia, decrease in N and reduction of number of erythrocytes, detection of little bodies of Heinz) and urine (definition of a product of metabolism of N. in it — rodinal).
First aid and treatment
At acute intoxication it is necessary to take out the victim from the room, to replace clothes in case of its treatment of N., to wash skin warm water with soap. To the victim allow to inhale the means exciting cardiovascular system and breath (oxygen and Carbogenum). In the conditions of a hospital carry out obkhmenny hemotransfusion, if necessary perform CPR, appoint cordial and vascular means, in case of spasms — anticonvulsant drugs. At hron, the poisoning proceeding with the phenomena of defeat of c. N of page, are recommended solyanokhvoyny bathtubs, a circular shower, drugs of calcium, at damage of a liver — symptomatic means.
Medicolegal proofs of poisoning
At N.'s poisoning on opening find out that internals and blood are painted in dark-brown color. In some cases from a corpse inherent N. an aromatic smell of bitter almonds proceeds. In liquid blood define large numbers of a methemoglobin. At gistol, a research reveal the expressed dystrophic changes in a liver and kidneys, deposits of hemosiderin in a spleen; in a brain find signs of disturbance of blood circulation, perivascular and pericellular hypostasis.
Prevention of poisonings of N. consists in sealing of the equipment, and also control of N.'s maintenance in the air environment (make sampling of air in nit-ratsionny mix with posleduyushchikhm photometric definition of N. in the radio and acetonic environment). Protection of skin (use of overalls, gloves, ointments etc.) is obligatory.
Persons with diseases of a nervous system, a liver and kidneys, with anemia, pregnant women are not allowed to work with N. Working with N. are exposed to periodic medical examinations.
See also Poisons industrial .
Bibliography: Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and E. N. Levina, t. 2, page 247, 252, L., 1976; E. A rebuzzing. Chemical analysis of air, page 115, L., 1976; E. A. rebuzzing and Gernete.V. Chemical analysis of air of the industrial enterprises, page 140, L., 1970; Dutkiewicz T. Metoda oznaczania i fizjologiczny poziom p-aminofenolu w moczu, Med. Pracy, t. U, s. 167, 1960; K u z e 1 o v a M. i Pople r A. Paraaminofenol a paranitrofenol jako ukazatel expozice anilinu a nitroben-zenu, Pracov. Lek., t. 29, No. 4-5, s. 186, 1977.
And. B. Sanotsky.