NIRENBERG Marshall (Nirenberg Marshall, sort. in 1927) — the American biochemist, the member of National academy of Sciences of the USA (1967) and the American academy of Sciences and arts (1966), the Nobel Prize laureate (1968).
Ended un-t of the State of Florida in 1952, worked in Michigan un-those, then (since 1957) in Ying-those arthritises and diseases of a metabolism; since 1962 the manager. laboratory biochemical, geneticists National in-that health.
The main works of M. Nirenberg are devoted to problems of interpretation genetic code (see).
He established nucleotide structure and the sequence of nucleotides in the triplets coding inclusion in a polypeptide chain of a molecule under construction of protein of all 20 amino acids. Together with Matten (J. H. Matthaei) M. Nirenberg in 1961 proved that the triplet consisting of uridilovy nucleotides (UUU) codes inclusion in on-lipeptidnuyu a chain of amino acid of phenylalanine, the triplet of cytidylic nucleotides (TsTsTs) codes inclusion of proline, and a triplet of adenylic nucleotides (AAA) — inclusion of a lysine. The methodical receptions offered by M. Nirenberg were used for interpretation of the chemical nature practically of all codons. M. Nirenberg and the group of employees directed by it proved universality of a genetic code, having shown that inclusion of the same amino acid in on-liiyeptidnuyu a chain of any protein (from proteins of microorganisms to proteins of the person) is coded by the same triplet of nucleotides. For opening and interpretation of a genetic code to M. Nirenberg together with G. Korana and R. Halle the Nobel Prize is awarded.
Works: The dependence of cell-free protein synthesis in E. Coli upon naturally occurring or synthetic polyribonucleotides, Proc, nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.), v. 47, p. 1588, 1961 (sovm, with Matthaei J. H.); A genetic code (II), in book: Structure and function of a cell, the lane with English, under the editorship of G. M. Frank, page 24, M., 1964; Genetic code, Usp. physical. sciences, t. 82, century 1, page 133, 1964 (sovm, with Shout F.).
Bibliography: Les Prix Nobel en 1968, p. 221, Stockholm, 1969.
A. G. Hvoles.