From Big Medical Encyclopedia

NICTITATING SPASM (biepharospasmus; Greek blepharon an eyelid + spasmos a spasm) — a spasm of a circular muscle a century. Can be clonic and tonic. The clonic spasm of a circular muscle is shown in the involuntary speeded-up blinking. The tonic spasm of a circular muscle leads to a resistant spastic smykaniye a century and can last for minutes, days, weeks. Meets tonic B more often.

The clonic nictitating spasm (blefarotik), or a blinking, has involuntary, fulminant character (see. Thicke ).

The tonic nictitating spasm happens symptomatic and essential.

The symptomatic tonic nictitating spasm usually comes owing to reflex irritation of branches of a trifacial at various diseases of front department of an eye. Most persistently B. at scrofulous keratoconjunctivites proceeds. B. considerably worsens the course of a disease of eyes, being followed by quite often considerable hypostasis a century because of a prelum of veins, and also severe dacryagogue, maceration of skin and cracks in corners a century. At long B. there can come torsion or an ectropion a century. There can be B. of healthy eyes because of reflex irritation of branches of a trifacial at diseases of bodies of an oral cavity, adnexal bosoms of a nose, nasopharynx. Tonic B. is observed at organic lesion of a facial nerve and at some other diseases of a nervous system.

The essential nictitating spasm is the functional disease caused by age changes in people of advanced age or the psychogenic reasons (hysteria, traumatic neurosis) in people of younger age. Hysterical B. always bilateral also arises hl. obr. at young women suddenly, for no apparent reason. In several hours, and sometimes several weeks later the spasm also suddenly disappears. At this form B. so-called points of pressing at the place of an exit of branches of a trifacial on which during the pressing B. right there stops often come to light.

At timely begun treatment of a tonic nictitating spasm, as a rule, there occurs recovery.

At B.'s treatment it is necessary to eliminate first of all a basic disease, especially sources of irritation, it is reflex its defiant. In a conjunctival sac dig in several times a day 0,5% solution of Dicainum or 2% solution of novocaine. For removal of an attack of B. press on points of pressing if they are found; injections of novocaine or morphine, in especially persistent cases — periorbital novocainic blockade or canthotomy are shown. Also the treatment applied at neurosises is recommended.

See also Spasm .

Bibliography: Barbsl I. E. Diseases century, Mnogotomn. management but glazn. Bol., under the editorship of V. of II. Arkhangelsk, t. 2, book 1, page 32, 42, etc., M., 1960, bibliogr.; 3 about l about t of N and c to and y I. N. O treatment a game-tuziopnykh of nictitating spasms, Oftalm. zhurn., X» 4, page 46, 1946; Der Augeharzt, hrsg. v. To. Velhagcn, Bd 3, S. 41, Stuttgart, 1960.

A. I. Volokonenko.