NEW ZEALAND — the state in a southwest part of the Pacific Ocean located on islands Northern, Southern, Chatham, Styyuart, Campbell, Kermadek, etc. The area is 268,7 thousand km 2 . Population of 3100 thousand, people (1979). The capital — Wellington (with suburbs of 351 thousand people, 1979).
In N.'s structure 3. «island territories» — Cook of the island, Niue the island and Tokeyau (Union) of the island enter (out of the card). Administrative division — 10 provinces. Ofits. language — English.
N 3. — the parliamentary monarchy, is a part of the Commonwealth headed by Great Britain. The head of state — the queen of Great Britain presented by the governor general. The legislature belongs to unicameral parliament — the House of Representatives; executive power is carried out by the government.
N.'s islands 3. have extent apprx. 1700 km. St. 3/4 territories occupy mountains, along the coast of the ocean and on valleys of the rivers — low sites. The climate is subtropical, sea, in the extreme South moderate.
The basis of the economy — the advanced agriculture conducting the place in Krom takes livestock production.
St. 80% of the population — the descendants of immigrants from Great Britain and Ireland who formed the Anglo-New Zealand nation; radical yashte-leu — Polynesians of Maori, including metises — 276 thousand people (1977).
The natural movement of the population from 1969 for 1977, on incomplete ofitsa. to the data published in editions of WHO it is shown in the table.
The average duration of the forthcoming life in 1975 made for men of 68,9 years, for women 75,4. For aboriginals of N. 3., Maori, these indicators were much lower: for men 61 years, for women of 65 years.
In 1975 25 115 cases of death were registered. Its main reasons: diseases of bodies of blood circulation (411,0 cases on 100 thousand people, or 49.2% of all cases of death), malignant new growths (163,1 cases, 19,9%); diseases of a respiratory organs (9,4%); accidents, poisonings, cases of violent death (8,1%); diseases of digestive organs (2,8%); diabetes (1,9%); diseases of c. N of page and sense bodys (1,9%), inf. diseases (1,0%), etc.
From inf. diseases in 1977 it was registered cases: inf. hepatitis — 1853, tuberculosis (all forms) — 628, food poisonings of a bacterial origin — 558, salmonellezny infections — 840, bacillar dysentery — 219, a brucellosis — 36, and also isolated cases of a meningococcal infection, leprosy, typhoid and paratyphoid, tetanus, etc.
The state of health of aboriginals of the country, according to a number of researches, is much worse, than the white population; among them rates of mortality from diseases of bodies of blood circulation and breath, from lung cancer are higher. Incidence of infectious, skin diseases, anemia is especially high.
Management, planning and control of activity of bodies and healthcare institutions carries out mines - in health care and social security.
Hospital and extra hospital help.
Hospital help to the population in 1976 would be given 322 (apart from psychiatric) on 22 596 beds, from to-rykh 17 881 beds (apprx. 80%) in 167 state to lay down. institutions. In private-tsakh generally surgical and therapeutic beds are concentrated.
The extra hospital help appears private medical practitioners of the general practice (1300, or 1 doctor for 2300 zhit., 1975), and also in polyclinic departments of BC and the centers of health. Name and content of work of healthcare institutions of N. 3. not completely corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad ).
Sanitarno - epidemiological service. Control for a dignity. - epid, a state in the country carries out bureau of public health care of min.-va health care and social security and the relevant services of the ministry of environmental control.
Mines-in of health care and social security subsidizes local authorities on construction of water handling and the sewerage.
Health care workforce and education. B1976 of in the country was 4090 doctors, or 13,0 on 10 thousand zhit. (in 1977 — 4257 doctors, or 13,7 on 10 thousand zhit.), 446 assistants to doctors, 1073 dentists, 15 400 nurses and apprx. 5000 assistants to the nurse, 2465 patronage sisters, 174 midwifes, 167 nurses in obstetrical institutions, 1392 dental surgery nurses, 329 dental technicians, 2397 druggists, 392 medical officers, and also physiotherapists, radio engineerings, a dignity. engineers and laboratory assistants of various profile. According to department of health care, in the country is not enough apprx. 300 doctors.
Training of doctors is carried out at 4 public medical schools with the 6-year term of training, and also on a medical f-takh of high fur boots in Auckland and RCATU; stomatologists — at 1 school with the 5-year term of training, druggists — at 1 school with 4-year-old and at 1 school with the 3-year term of training.
Nurses are trained in 38 state and 2 private schools, laboratory assistants, technicians and other specialists at 50 state and 22 private schools.
Resorts. On S.-V. of Severny Island apprx. of Murupar the balneoklimatichesky resort of Rotorua with warm sulfide, sulfate-sodium and hot sulfide and hloridno-sodium waters and similar resorts on the bank of the lake Taupo, in the settlement of the same name and in Vayrakey is located. On S. of Severny Island apprx. Auckland there are balneological resorts with chloride waters (Helensvill and Vayvera), Youzhny apprx. Christchurch is the balneological resort of Hanmer with sulfide, hloridno-sodium waters in the center of the island.
Table. VITAL RATES IN NEW ZEALAND from 1969 for 1979 (on 1000 people)
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 365, Geneva, WHO, 1977; Sixth report on the world health situation (1973 — 1977), pt 2, p. 358, Geneva, WHO, 1980; S m i t h R. Internal and external influences, Brit. med. J., v. 1, p. 996, 1979; World Health Statistics Annual, 1978, v. 1 — 3, Geneva, 1978 — 1979.
V. B. Tsybulsky.