NEW CALEDONIA — the «overseas territory» of France occupying group of islands in a southwest part of the Pacific Ocean (the lake New Caledonia, group of the islands Luayote, Pen, etc.). Total area is 19 thousand km 2 . The population apprx. 140 thousand people (1979). The administrative center — Noumea (56 thousand zhit., 1979). Administrative division — 26 districts. Ofits. language — French.
Is controlled the governor appointed by the government of France. The governor heads the Government council elected by advisory body — Territorial assembly.
New Caledonia has the lake apprx. 350 km in length and 30 — 50 km width. It is surrounded with a coral reef. The coastline is cut strongly up. More than a half of the island occupy mountains up to 1650 m high
of Vost. the coast is covered with rainforests, on zap. the coast and internal plateaus — savannas.
Set of the small rapids rivers. Climate of tropical monsoons.
The basis of the economy — ore mining industry. There are rich fields of nickel, chrome, cobalt, copper. Extraction of nickel is important (it is controlled by the fr. company).
Production of page is engaged in agriculture apprx. 70% of amateur indigenous people, but - x. products only for 30% satisfies needs of the country. Grow up coffee, Taro, bananas, pineapples, cassavas, coconuts, etc. Fishery is developed.
Aboriginals — hl. obr. Melanesians (new Caledonians, luayo-tinets) — make apprx. 1/2 population, the others — French, and also immigrants of the countries of Asia (Javanese, Japanese, etc.). Average population density 7 people on 1 km 2 .
The natural movement of the population in 1977, on incomplete ofitsa. to the data published in editions of WHO and the UN it was characterized by the following indicators (on 1000 people): birth rate 28,0, general mortality 6,8, natural increase 21,2. Child mortality 41,2 for 1000 live-born (1974).
In 1977 more than 600 cases of syphilis, apprx. 60 cases of a leprosy, 845 — chicken pox, 331 — gonococcal infections, 262 — epidemic parotitis, 119 — a pulmonary tuberculosis, 51 — inf were registered. hepatitis, isolated cases of a typhoid, bacillar dysentery, paratyphoid, amebiasis. Inf. and parasitic diseases are widespread more among aboriginals.
The director of services of Public health care and hygiene directs N. K. health care, to-ry it is subordinated to the governor. In 1976 35 medical institutions on 1677 beds functioned (120,0 beds on 10 thousand zhit.).
Extra hospital help was given by out-patient departments of BC, in rural areas — 15 centers of health care, and also the mobile unit of health care. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of N. K. not completely corresponds to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Lechebnoprofilaktichesky institutions abroad).
In 1976 in N. K. 129 doctors worked (9,2 on 10 thousand zhit.), 37 dentists, 37 druggists, apprx. 500 nurses and assistants to the nurse, And midwifes and apprx. 25 other specialists with secondary medical education. Since 1969 the medical school on training of paramedical staff works.
Bibliography: The fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972). page 399, Geneva, WHO, 1977; Encyclopedia Brita-nica, v. 16. p. 324. L., 1965; Sixth report on the world health situation (1973 — 1977), pt 2, p. 355, Geneva, WHO, 1980; World Health Statistics Annual, 1977, v. 1, p. 5 a. o., v. 2, p. 119, Geneva, 1977.
V. V. Fedorov.