From Big Medical Encyclopedia

NEURAL ACTIVITY STIMULATORS — the pharmaceuticals strengthening activity of the central nervous system. Pages of N of can increase reflex activity p functions of the centers back and a brain, to increase intellectual and physical effeciency, to stimulate mental processes, to eliminate nek-ry mental disturbances (depressive, asthenic and other frustration).

Depending on features pharmakol. actions and orientations of effect among S. N of distinguish analeptical means (see), strengthening function of the vital centers of a brain, psychogogic means (see), increasing intellectual and physical effeciency and antidepressants (cm.). Besides, properties C. of N of means metabolic (e.g., glucose, vitamin and hormonal drugs, compounds of phosphorus) and mediator action have (e.g., ephedrine, antikholinesterazny substances).

The increase in excitability of the central neurons defining pharmakol. properties C. of N of, it is reached or by primary strengthening of processes of excitement in neurons, or due to their secondary activation owing to restriction of influences of functionally interfaced brake systems. Mechanisms of effect of the different drugs belonging N of to S. are various.

Primary excitement of neurons under the influence of S. of N of can be a consequence of direct change of their intracellular metabolism or strengthening of exciting synoptic transfer. Excitement of nervous cells due to change of metabolic processes most often happens owing to strengthening of energy balance. The stimulating impact on energy balance in neurons is exerted by such S. to N of, to-rye serve as substrate of energy or have anti-hypoxemic properties, napr, nootropic means (see), compounds of organic phosphorus, etc. Strengthening of energy balance in neurons can happen also due to increase in level of cyclic AMF and increase of utilization of glucose (e.g., in case of inhibition of enzyme of phosphodiesterase). By such principle the psychostimulant works caffeine (see). Besides, strengthening of energy balance in neurons is the cornerstone of effect of nek-ry analeptics, napr, Corazolum (see), Bemegridum (see), etc., and also S. of N of of a plant origin, napr, drugs ginseng (see), eleuterokokka, etc.

Increase in neyronalny excitability can arise at activation of synoptic entrances of cells as a result of influence of substances on processes of emission and destruction of neurotransmitters with exciting properties. So, psychostimulants from group fenilalkilamin (see) and nek-ry antidepressants promote accumulation in a synaptic gap of catecholamines, to-rye way of activation of membrane adenylatecyclase cause accumulation of cyclic AMF and at the expense of it strengthen energy balance in neurons.

Secondary excitement of neurons of a head and spinal cord happens by direct or indirect disturbance of brake processes under the influence of a number C. of N of. Direct restriction of function of brake synapses is observed at blockade of specific receptors. E.g., the stimulating influence on c. in N of page of an analeptic of strychnine and a tetanin it is caused by their competitive antagonism with a brake mediator glycine concerning glycine receptors, and the effect of convulsive poison of a bikukullin is caused by linkng of this poison with brake GAMK-receptors. Weakening of function of brake mechanisms at S.'s use of N of can have indirect character if substances strengthen brake synoptic transfer in any brake structures of a brain (so-called braking of braking). In that case suppression of brake influences results in secondary dominance of function of the activating structures. Psychostimulants have such component of action Phenaminum (see) and Sydnocarbum (see), strengthening emission of dopamine in a neostriatum.

Indications to S.'s appointment of N of of various groups are defined by their range pharmakol. actions. E.g., analeptical means use as stimulators of breath, for increase in the ABP and strengthening of cordial activity. Psychogogic means are appointed for the purpose of elimination of mental and physical exhaustion, asthenic and astheno-depressive syndromes. Nootropic means are effective in cases of organic lesions of c. N of page (atherosclerosis of vessels of a brain, an effect of a cherepnomozgovy injury, etc.), and also at a delay of mental development in children. As the main indication to use of antidepressants serve depressions.

Bibliography: Arushanyan E. B. and Belozertsev Yu. A. Psychogogic substances, Chita, 1979, bibliogr.; 3 and to at with about in V. V. Pharmakologiya of the central synapses, M., 1973; Mashkov-with to and y M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p.1, page 107, M., 1977; The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, ed. by A. G. Gilman and. lake, N. Y., 1980.

E. B. Arushanyan.