NETWORK PLANNING and management (synonym method of a critical way) — the method of planning which is directly combined with management and allowing to exercise most effectively development and control of the course of implementation of the project (a complex of a working task, a subject, development). The page of the item promotes mutual coordination of the planned works and the received results (including and intermediate), to more exact calculation of plans and their timely adjustment.
Drawing up logical-mathematical model of the managed object (network model) in the form of the network schedule (network) is the cornerstone of a method, in Krom the set of the events causing implementation of the project, and also the sequence, interrelation and characteristics of a necessary set of operations is reflected. On such schedule works and events (fig.) are put. Each event (in the drawing it is specified by a circle) reflects the beginning or completion of work, and work (it is designated by an arrow) means action, a cut it is necessary to carry out to pass from one (previous) event to the subsequent. Thereby accurate definition initial (or previous) an event is reached and visually foreseeable communication with the completing event, i.e. the purpose is provided.
Networks differ on many classification signs: on number of the participating organizations (private — at one organization, complex — at many), on volume (big, average, small), on number of the purposes (one - multi-purpose), on structure (determined, accidental, mixed), etc. Efficiency of network planning is provided with attraction to work of specialists in appropriate sections of mathematics: theories of counts, to combination theory, programming.
S.'s process the item consists of three stages: drawing up, analysis and optimization of network. Drawing up network includes creation of the enlarged network (skeletal model) of the project (task) and then detailing of the project, i.e. quantitative assessment of separate operations according to the optimized parameter in the beginning.
Estimates happen determined and probabilistic. In the latter case expert! determine by way upper — «pessimistic» and lower — «optimistic» estimates on the basis of which estimates of time really necessary for achievement of the goal form.
The analysis of network, except корректировки^ includes the following main works: shortchanging of all ways connecting an initial event with completing; identification of one or several critical ways causing extreme border of implementation of the project in the optimized parameter (ways, the longest at the organization for time, the most expensive at cost, etc.); shortchanging of the reserves which are available on the noncritical ways; the multiple quantitative and informative analysis of the revealed reserves from the point of view of opportunities of their use on the critical ways; development of the corresponding recommendations.
Optimization of network is directed to the corresponding correction of critical ways on condition of respect for reliability of implementation of the project. Optimization provides or transfer of reserves from noncritical ways on critical, or attraction of additional human and material resources, or if it is not enough, change (within an opportunity) technologies of implementation of the project and, respectively, topology of network. It is necessary to distinguish the initial optimization of network which is carried out at a stage of initial planning, from the subsequent, carried out at a stage of operating control by implementation of the project. The purpose of the first — finishing a global indicator in the optimized parameter to reasonable borders, the purpose of the second — control of execution and when it is required, correction of network. The frequency of the subsequent optimization depending on specifics of the project (task) and specific conditions of its performance can fluctuate over a wide range. Each optimization is preceded by the retest made on the basis of information on work flow.
The page of the item has two main advantages in comparison with scheduling: an organic combination of processes of planning and management, and also an opportunity to consider everything tekhnol. interrelations at any number of events (operations). The page of the item is effective during the performance as unique, including search, and standard (homogeneous) projects. In the latter case it is reasonable to develop the standard networks including the set of events, maximum for such projects, and operations. At the same time reduction of standard network to specific conditions, i.e. the exception of excess elements and correction of indicators, takes a little time.
The page of the item finds broad application in a health system, first of all in the course of program and target planning (see. Planning of health care ), in planning of development, distribution and implementation of new medicines, diagnostic methods and treatments, etc.
Bibliography: Burkov V. N., etc. Network models and tasks of management, M., 1967; 3 at x about in and c to and y S. I. Is also glad - h and to I. A. Mathematical methods of network planning, M., 1965, bibliogr.; Landa B. D. Network planning, M., 1966; Mar and N and p I., Etc. Experience of network planning of immunization of the working population the inactivated influenza vaccine, Owls. sensible okhr., No. 11, page 24, 1981.
B. D. Landa.