From Big Medical Encyclopedia

NERVOSISM — the concept of preferential value of a nervous system in regulation of physiological functions and processes of life activity of an organism of an animal or the person.

The concept «nervosism» is entered by I. Pavlov. However the ideas about the person, the predominating role of a nervous system (see) in an organism expressed much earlier. So, the English doctor U. Kullen (1712 — 1790), based on representations is mute. the therapist F. Goffmann (1660 — 1742) about «tone» and «atony» and in connection with theoretical generalizations A. Gal of 1072 j 0 73 1 - 74 the NERVOSISM 365 ler (1708 — 1777) results fiziol, researches of irritability of muscles and sensitivity of nerves, considered a nervous system as the regulator of all normal and patol, processes in an organism. According to U. Kullen's doctrine of a disease are caused by the excess or insufficient movement of nervous substance («fluid»). Similar to it in dokt, the thesis of the Serbian doctor I. Apostolovich protected in 1757, the essence of diseases is explained by disturbances in the expiration of the «fluid» circulating in a nervous system, to-r aya is considered as the main engine of all processes in an organism combining an organism in a whole. Vitalistic and animistic ideas of a nervous fluid as «parts of world ether», to-ry allegedly influences an organism through a nervous system, were widespread in science up to 19 century. Materialistic interpretation of the concept of N. is connected substantially with development of the experimental physiology which proved the nominated A Ruble more. The court the reflex principle as universal in activity of a nervous system. Development of the reflex theory (see), studying of nerve centers and opening by Ch. Bell of the motive nature of lobbies and the sensitive nature of back roots of a spinal cord played the leading role in ek- sperimentalno-scientific justification of N. Exclusive value in N.'s development had the studying of trophic function of a nervous system which opened its leading role in regulation of exchange processes in an organism (see the Trophicity). The facts received in this direction became an important argument in favor of N. The fullest reflection of N. of this period finds in K. Bernard's works. So, in «Lectures on physiology and pathology of a nervous system » (1858) he claims that properties and a variety of departures of a nervous system grant it the right for the first place between all other systems of an organism that the animal that will be more perfect, than his nervous system is more developed; this system not only puts in action and regulates all phenomena of external life, but also influences also all phenomena of life organic, participates in all acts of digestion, allocation, the work of warmth , etc. In the azhneyshy, fundamental stage JI. as the developed scientific concept

the wedge, practice by C.11. Botkin is connected with I. M. Sechenov's researches, using their results in. In the works they relied on rich traditions of domestic science to areas and storages of a cheniye of influence of a nervous system on health of the person which are going back to E. O. Mukhin, I. E. Dyadkovsky, N. I. Pirogov, etc. Outstanding neurophysiological researches — opening of the central braking, the phenomena of summation, the continuous regulating influences of the highest parts of the nervous system on the lowest, trophic / actions, an afferent impulsation — allowed to reveal the most important patterns of activity of a nervous system and especially a brain.

Opening of reflex mechanisms of activity of cerebral hemispheres was the main contribution of I. M. Sechenov to neurophysiology and N.'s concept. This opening helped to formulate the fundamental law, on Krom all acts of adult and unconscious life by origin an essence reflexes. Researches I. M. Sechenova not only confirmed regulating, unitary enterprise r and vl I yushchovat a role of a nervous system in all acts of life activity of organisms, but also at showed on its universal reflex mechanism, and especially on value of a brain and its big hemispheres. Use of the doctrine of I. M. Sechenov in clinic confirmed justice of his original positions and allowed S. P. Botkin and his pupils to formulate the neurogenic theory of pathology. In this theory they proceeded from a paramount role of the reflex mechanism and the centers of a brain. S. P. Botkin considered that the leading link of a pathogeny of many diseases are disturbances of «regulatory nervous devices», first of all the centers of a brain; he assumed that there are nerve centers managing various functions of an organism — cooling of a body, a lymphokinesis, sweating, etc. A number of such centers was open in pilot studies. The neurogenic theory of pathology gained confirmation and development in works B. A. Manasseipa, V.P. Obraztsov, A. Ya. Kozhevnikov, V. M. Bekhterev, C. S. Korsakov both many others to l and nitsist, to-rye along with I. M. Sechenov and S. P. Botkin's ideas was used by achievements of neurophysiology, in particular in the field of studying of localization of functions in parencephalons. A. Ya. Kozhevnikov, N of Apr., using G. Th. Fritsch's results, E. Hitzig, V. Ya. Danilevsky, I. R. Tarkhanov on localization of functions in a cerebral cortex, on a basis a wedge, observation introduced the idea of existence of the highest cortical centers regulating activity of internals. Thus, to the universal reflex mechanism it was added t of joint stock company about e an important link, to and to cortical c of an entra. Comprehensively konts ep tsi I would be N. of l and is presented in works B. M. B ekh to t e a roar, to-ry created the complete doctrine about a role of a nervous system and its departments, first of all a brain, in r e gu lyats AI of functions of an organism. In 1903 he estimated head mo zg and its bark to joint stock company body, re gu liras of uyushchiya and la of yushchiya supporting everything in general about t of board of an organism and p r in piece of St av himself ap steam at, bl agodar to Krom the reasonable relation of an organism to about to the ruzhayushchy world is established. Of this stage of formation of N. it was characteristic aktsen tirovan iye attention not only to roles of a nervous system in r to an eg lyats AI of acts and zn e activity, but also on it and ntegrativny function — association about r and a nizm and all its systems and bodies in a single whole. Value of a nervous system to and to difficult, both erarkhich esky system and funkts, the structure providing

the piece leading, integrating r about l in regulation of processes and zn e I to a telnost, formation of theory of higher nervous activity (see) to joint stock company analitiko-synthetic d e I telnost of bark and a subcortex in p rotsessa of regulation of functions defined the maintenance of the Pavlovsk stage N. In I. P. Pavlov's works, N of an acha of N and I from works on a vascular innervation, classical researches in the field of physiology of digestion, in to-rykh was established r e gu to l I that rn and I am a role of a nervous system in the coordinated activity of all digestive organs, and konch aya creation of theory of higher nervous activity, also N of a tsipa of N were consistently developed p r. Establishment of value bo l of shy cerebral hemispheres and bark in management of functions about r a ganizm of N and a basis of the mechanism of conditional reflex bonds in integration with bezuslovnoreflektorny with in I z I mi became the highest expression of N. Cerebral hemispheres and its bark as p about I. P. Pavlov's researches showed, I vl yat sya the highest regulator of functions of an organism as in N, big after lushariya, and r I am du «with grandiose representation of external m and r and... is available as well wide representation of inner world of an organism, i.e. a condition of work of mass of bodies and fabrics, a lot of internal organic processes » (I. P. P and in l about century of Half-N of SOBR. works, M. — L., 1949, t. I I I, page 417). About the highest nervous deya ate the doctrine with t to Nosta as the fullest reflection of the concept of N. personified also the fullest idea of integrity of an organism as the major basis and premises of H. This circumstance more than once

podcher1075 1076 10 77 366 NERVOUS CELL to and in and l I. P. Pavlov, noting r azv ty I. M. Sechenov's ideas, together with the Crimea «for the mighty power of a physiological research» all unseparably animal organism was acquired «instead of vague». To and to and d l I all doctrine about century and., d l I the Pavlovsk N. is characteristic evolutionary approach, in particular d an okazatelstvo of increase of a role of a nervous system and its highest departments of a measure of its c of an entralization and development of animal organisms. «Than the N of ER vn aya system of an animal about r is more perfect than of An and zm and — I. P. Pavl about in — that it wrote a tsentralizovaniye!!, that its highest department is all in bigger and bigger degree r an asporyaditel of all activity of an organism » (I. P. P and in l about century of Half-N of SOBR. works, M. — JI., 1940, t. I, page 410). N.'s concept gained fruitful development in a wedge, medicine. N ach and N and I from attempts of I. P. Pavlov and his closest pupils objyasn to ityit origins of neurosises and the principles of their pathogenetic treatment, many domestic clinical physicians having developed Ali neurogenic theories of a number of diseases, e.g. N. D. Strazhesko — pathologies of abdominal organs, A. I. Yarots- a cue — a peptic ulcer zhelud, G.F. Lang and And. JI. Butchers — an idiopathic hypertensia and aterosklero for, D. D. Pletnev — cardiovascular diseases etc. N.'s ideas about to and the hall also huge vl to Yana e on development of physiology and N found reflection and further r and zvity in works of many pupils and I. P. Pavlov's followers, in researches H. E. Vvedensky, JI. A. Orbeli, A. D. Speransky, A. A. Ukhtomsky, I. S. Berita- were shvit. However after the Integrated session of AN and the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences in 1950 and d eya N. was unreasonably the absolute zi a rovana nek-ry physiologists. N.'s data are exclusive to a reg of la that rn to ohm to influence of a cerebral cortex (see) on vital f unkts AI of organisms — so-called to about r ti to are scarlet and zm — generated views of N and exclusiveness of a role nervous r e gu l yats and and. Noncritical distribution of these views led to underestimation or belittling of a role d r at gi x r an ega lyato rny mechanisms, and first of all humoral and go rmon aln oh regulation. Meanwhile after the proof of the chemical nature of transfer to liyan y a nervous system and allocation the chemical transmitter about in already N e in l z I was protivopos t and in l I in t a nervous system of a gumoralna to m and hormonal factors. In this with in ides conventional about kaza to Wai of t sya representations about vzaimod eystviya of nervous control (at with x r An en and and its leading value) and the humor is scarlet no - go rmonat ny factors (see Neyrogumoralnaya regulation). In sovr, medicine N.'s concept remains the major principle and a component fruitfully unless the howled doctrine about system r to an eg of la of a tion of functions of the organism which is widely using the latest developments of experimental physiology, immunology, endocrinology and methods of molecular biology and pathology etc. A story of development of the doctrine about N — not only I r to and I am an illustration of succession of the ideas, but also an example of penetration into theoretical medicine of the philosophical materialistic and evolutionary ideas (unity and integrity of an organism, vzaimosv I z an organism with the environment, unity of structure and function , etc.). Bibliography: B about r about d at l and F. R. N, S. P. Botkin and the neurogenic theory of medicine, M., 1953, bibliogr.; about N e, To history of a nervosism in domestic medicine, M., 1955; about N e, History of medicine, the Chosen lectures, M., 1961; About l and to about in N. V. The most important neurophysiological opening of I. M. Sechenov and their further development, Fiziol, zhurn. USSR, t. 65, No. 8, page 1097, 1979, bibliogr.; Z and y to about N. N. Development of the doctrine about a nervous trophicity, the Stalemate. fiziol, and Eksperim, rubbed., No. 2, page 3, 1978, bibliogr.; History of medicine of the USSR, under the editorship of V. D. Petrov, M., 1964; L and with and c y Yu.P. N, A. Ya. Kozhevnikov and the Moscow school of neuropathologists, M., 1961; about N e, Modern theories of medicine, M., 1968; H e r N and about in with to and y V. N. The Soviet physiology to the sixtieth anniversary of Great October socialist revolution, Fiziol, zhurn. USSR, t. 63, No. 10, page 1369, 1977; H e r N at x A. M. and P l e c and t y y D. F.> Nervosism and modern pathology (To the 80 anniversary since the birth of A. D. Speransky), the Stalemate. fiziol, and Eksperim, rubbed., t. 14, No. 1, page 89, 1970.,

Yu. P. Lisitsyn.