Mari's FLURANS Jean Pierre (Flou-rens Marie Jean Pierre; 1794 — 1867) — the French physiologist, the anatomist, the foreign member correspondent. St. Petersburg academy of Sciences.
The member of the Parisian academy of Sciences since 1828. Since 1830 professor of a botanic garden at academy, and since 1833 the constant secretary of academy. Directed department of a comparative anatomy Parisian un-that, was engaged in research and pedagogical activity.
M. Flurans is the author of a number of basic researches in the field of anatomy and physiology. In 1856 it published a course of lectures on comparative embryology, anatomy and physiology. M. Flurans developed the original theory of formation of a bone, investigated an anatomic structure of skin and mucous membranes. Its works in the field of history of science — about opening of blood circulation, about G. L. L. Buffon's creativity are known. Kyuvye, Fontenel (V. Le Bovier de Fontenelle), etc.
M. Flurans's experiences with a so-called reeducation of nerve centers had basic value. It made cross-linking of the ends of previously cut nerves innervating flexor muscles and extensor muscles of a wing of a bird (rooster). As a result the flexor muscle was connected with «the center of extension», and an extensor muscle — with «the center of bending». Function of a wing at the same time was completely broken, but through a nek-swarm time was recovered that demonstrated change of genetically determined functions of nerve centers under the influence of system processes (see Plasticity of physiological functions). M. Flurans opened existence in a myelencephalon of the nerve center managing function of breath (see. Respiratory center), investigated function of semicircular channels, a thalamus, mesencephalon and a cerebellum on coordination of movements of a body.
Recherches experimentales sur les proprietes et les fonctions du systeme ner-veux, dans les animaux vertebres, P., 1824; Experiences sur le systeme nerveux, P., 1825; Gours sur la generation, l’ovologie et l’embryologie, P., 1836, Lpz., 1838;
Theorie experimentale de la formation des os, P., 1847;
Histoire de la decouverte de la circulation du sang, P., 1854; Cours de physiologie comparee, P., 1856; De la longevity humaine, P., 1856.
Bibliography: Wery P. Pierre Flourens, pionnier de la recherche neurologique, Scalpel, t. 35, p. 653, 1968.
F. A. Ata-Muradova.