From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MUD ECONOMY — the system representing the field of therapeutic muds with balneo-technical constructions for its operation and also devices for regulation of the mode of a mud reservoir. X. shall provide the need to lay down. institutions in dirt on the basis of rational operation of the field and technically correct preparation of dirt for to lay down, procedures. The equipment for production, transportation, cleaning, heating and supply of dirt, and also pools for its storage and regeneration enters it.

For the organization G. x. omnibus quality and quantitative estimate of mud resources of the field by results of prospecting gidrogeol is necessary. the works consisting in zondirovochny drilling of mud deposits, the description of layers of dirt, determination of their power and sampling of dirt on physical. - chemical, mikrobiol. and dignity. - bacterial, analyses. By results of these works the plan of the mud field is formed, quality and stocks are estimated to lay down. dirt, their dignity. state. For drawing up recommendations about operation of the field and for engineering calculations of separate techno of l. the processes connected with production, transportation and preparation to lay down. dirt, data on capacities and depths of layers of standard dirt, their chemical and mechanical structure, plastichnovyazky properties, durations of upholding and consolidation of mud slurries are necessary. Are considered also this about durations of recovery of the main properties of dirt after their use or fluidifying defining suitability to lay down. dirt for repeated use.

On the basis of data on studying of the field recommendations about preservation of the natural mode of the mud field or if it is unstable, on its regulation are developed. Regulation of the mode of a reservoir of mud fields is aimed at providing optimum external environment and preservation of dirt. It is especially important at the natural mode, at Krom there can be an excessive decrease in the water line and the drainage of the big areas of mud deposits connected with it, the concoction of salts threatening with closing of dirt with a large amount of chemical rainfall, or, on the contrary, excessive flood of a reservoir, leading to desalting of mud solution, intensive washout of coast, a zapesochivaniye of a bottom etc. Regulation of the mode of a reservoir of mud fields should be carried out, e.g., at operation of a number of mud lakes of droughty areas. Usually water balance of lakes is increased by addition in a mud reservoir of water. Sources of artificial flood shall meet the following main requirements: 1) existence of enough water; 2) an opportunity to make addition of water, in necessary terms; 3) exception of negative influence of chemical composition of make up water on the mode of salinity of a mud reservoir. So, in the Saksky mud lake the channel feeding the lake with sea water, the Tambukan mud lake — obvodnitelny channels etc. is built. Studying of the mode of mud reservoirs is carried out by means of special overseeing by the level, temperature and composition of water, currents and water exchange, processes of ice formation and salt formation, biol, structure of the mud field, character of water-salt food of a reservoir, change of an atmospheric precipitation, temperatures and air humidities, winds; evaporations.

Dignity. protection of mud fields, i.e. protection them from damage and pollution, is carried out by their inclusion along with others natural to lay down. factors of resorts to specially established districts zones of sanitary protection (see). Borders and their mode are approved by Council of ministers of the USSR or federal republic (depending on category of the resort) that is valid the law.

The choice of system of operation of the field depends on stocks, quality of dirt and conditions of its production, and also distance of mud baths from the mud field.

The lake simple extensive system of operation provides single use of dirt with the subsequent its emission. This system is applied, as a rule, on condition of security of the resort with dirt not less than for 50 years.

The lake intensive system provides return of dirt after it disposable directly in the field on long-term regeneration.

The basin loop system provides repeated use of dirt with its regeneration in artificial pools. For procedures arrives regenerated (i.e. with recovered physical. - chemical and a dignity. - bacterial, properties) dirt from these pools. This system is most economic and reasonable at security of the resort with dirt less than for 25 years since after start-up of system dirt is extracted only in the volume demanded for compensation of irrevocable losses and add in the form of impurity to the dirt which is stored in regeneration pools.

The combined systems consisting in alternation of use of lake system with basin for creation of the periods of a quarantine of the lake (e.g., one year) separating time of extraction of dirt from time of its return to the lake after use are possible.

Engineering equipment G. x. includes the mechanized means of production to lay down. dirt, providing rational operation of fields on a certain system (lifting and unloading mechanisms, the equipment for the main transportation), and also system and means of regulation of the water and salt relationships of the lake.

The equipment of mud baths shall provide the maximum preservation of properties and structure to lay down. the dirt delivered from the field. Besides, some shortcomings of dirt (a contamination, excess or insufficient humidity, etc.) shall be eliminated.

X. mud baths (see) includes: devices for acceptance of svezhedobyty dirt, storage, system of an intake of the svezhedobyty or regenerated dirt from these storages, heating units and system of supply of dirt on places of consumption, collecting the fulfilled dirt, its extraction from tarpaulins and return to regeneration pools.

In need of G. x. mud baths turns on devices for cleaning to lay down. dirt from a mechanical contamination (wiping through a metal sieve, etc.), moistening or removal of free water (drainage).

Pumping transfer to lay down. dirt — the most progressive way of transportation mechanizing labor-intensive processes.

Regeneration to lay down. dirt, applied for the purpose of their repeated use, the dignity consists in partial recovery of composition of dirt to a certain level, stabilization and self-cleaning of dirt from pathogenic microflora, normalization. - bacterial. indicators. Terms of regeneration depend on physical. - chemical and biol, composition of dirt in this connection they are not identical to different types of dirt and mud fields. Terms of regeneration for sulphidic silt mud of 3 — 6 months, for sapropels of 8 — 12 months. Acceleration of terms of regeneration of dirt can be reached by use of «top dressing» — introductions to dirt of organic matters in number of 0,5 — 1% to volume (leaves of trees, a young grass, grain stillage, etc.). Regeneration of dirt is carried out under physical. - chemical and mikrobiol, control.

Usually dirt is stored in special regeneration pools under 20 — a 25-centimeter layer of a lake brine or close to it on composition of salt solution at t ° 15 — 20 °. Sometimes the used dirt is returned on regeneration to the field on specially allotted sites (at lake intensive system of operation). Regeneration pools can directly be located in the building of mud baths, in separate structures and under the open sky on special sites of the territory of mud baths. Their capacity is defined by terms of regeneration and the need for dirt, edges depends on the capacity of mud baths and average discharge of dirt on one procedure (for applications — 25 — 30 l). Height of a layer of dirt in pools is accepted no more than 1,5 — 2,0 m to avoid reconsolidation of sublayers, and the sizes of the pool — proceeding from a condition that the volume of dirt in it did not exceed monthly requirement of mud baths.

Along with natural to lay down. by dirt in mud baths artificial sulphidic and peat dirt can be used. A method of receiving artificial dirt — see. therapeutic muds .

Control of G.'s maintaining x., and also its protection, preparation of dirt for procedures, their storage and regeneration it is carried out by special control observing stations and gidrogeol. service.

See also Balneotekhnichesky constructions .

Bibliography: Balneotechnics of mineral waters and therapeutic muds, under the editorship of Yu. E. Danilov y other, page 189, M., 1969; Volkova O. Yu. Original positions on the organization and maintaining lake and pool mud economy in resorts, Pyatigorsk, 1957; Questions of the theory and practice of a balneotechnics of mineral waters and therapeutic muds, under the editorship of Yu. E. Danilov, page. From, 162, M., 1972; Evstafyev V. P. Mechanization of processes of development and transport of therapeutic muds, Works of the 6th Vsesoyuz, congress fizioter. and kurortol., page 415, M., 1972; Therapeutic muds of the USSR, under the editorship of G. A. Nevrayev and L. S. Mikheyeva, page 89, M., 1971.

V. P. Evstafyev, L. S. Mikheyeva.