MOULD — the characteristic fluffy, velvety, woolly and ragged, web plaques of various coloring formed by microscopic fungi on food stuffs, grain, sterns, the plant and animal residues, paper, a tree, skin, metals, rubber, gasoline and oil products, plastic, varnishes, paints, glass and on other materials.
The fungi forming P. (see. Mushrooms ), belong to various systematic groups — classes of zigomitset (Zygomycetes), ascomycetes (Ascomycetes), imperfect mushrooms (Fungi imperfecti). From zigomitset Mucor and Rhizopus forming fluffy whitish-gray plaques on bread, fruits and vegetables, seeds, metal, plastic, diesel fuel, etc. most often meet. From ascomycetes Penicillium and Aspergillus forming P. in the form of green, gray, sometimes black, yellow plaques on foodstuff, paper, skin, plastic, metals, walls of houses on glass, diesel fuel, etc. are most widespread. From imperfect mushrooms Fusarium and Trichothecium forming pink P. on food stuffs, paper, cereals, Cladosporium — black P. on foodstuff, cereals, straw, paper, gasoline and oil products, Alternaria — black P. on plant residues, a cotton, plastic, metals, paper are most known, etc.
P. covering substrate consist generally from a dispute (conidiums) of a fungus and threads of a mycelium (see Mushrooms). P.'s disputes in large quantities get to air and settle on various objects, products, plants, on skin and mucous membranes of animals and the person. Threads of a mycelium penetrate substrate, on Krom P. develops, and destroy it by means of the enzymes emitted to P. Osobenno a considerable loss the mold at hit on vegetables and fruit causes. Nek-rye P. are causative agents of diseases of the person, food fishes, birds, mammals (see. Fungi parasitic , Mould mycoses ).
A number of types of P., e.g. Fusarium, Sta-chybotrys, has property to emit the toxins causing a serious illness in the person and domestic animals — mikotoksikoza (cm); the toxins possessing cancerogenic action are known (see. Aflatoxins ). Nek-rye P. is produced by the substances with high biological activity applied in applied medicine: antibiotics (see), enzymes (see) etc. The bread mold of Neurospora found application in experimental practice (in genetics, biochemistry, molecular biology). In particular, neurodisputes are convenient model for studying of a genetic recombination.
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T. P. Preobrazhenskiy.