MOTIVATIONS (fr. motivation motivation, inclination, incentive motive; synonym: inclinations, motives) — emotionally charged aspirations of the person and animals to satisfaction of the leading requirements. Forming on the basis of selective excitement of brain structures, M. result in purposeful search behavior.
The lowest distinguish M. (primary, simple, or biological) and the highest (secondary, difficult, or social).
Biol. M (motivations of hunger, thirst, fear, aggression, sexual, parent, temperature, etc.) are directed to satisfaction of leaders biol, requirements of an organism. I. P. Pavlov called this group M. the main inclinations of an organism. Close to this group M. so-called desires adjoin an urination and defecation. All these M., as a rule, are inborn and form entirely on the basis of hereditary mechanisms. It is characteristic that maturing various biol. The m is carried out selectively and consistently during various age periods, napr, sexual and parent M. ripen later, than M. of hunger or thirst (see. Sistemogenez ). Proximate cause of emergence biol. M are preferential the irritants of internal environment connected with change of various leading indicators defining the normal course of exchange processes in an organism (e.g., the level of nutrients, osmotic pressure, a condition of sex cells, various hormones etc.). These changes of these or those homeostatic indicators (see. Homeostasis ), defining emergence various biol. M, make so-called internal requirements of an organism, to-rye, being substantially fabric and humoral changes, act, thus, as material incentives biol. M.
Along with this M. can be caused special external, the so-called key or «releasing» factors (rileasing-factors), napr, by a look or a smell of the opponent, sexual partner, food, water or other irritants satisfying with the basic biol, to requirements. However in a basis and these M. the inborn, hereditarily caused internal mechanisms also lie. So, aggressive reactions are caused by certain changes of nerve centers under the influence of the adrenaline and noradrenaline allocated by the relevant structures under certain conditions, sexual reactions — impact of sex hormones on nerve centers etc. The ratio of external and internal factors in M.'s emergence in different conditions can change.
Biol. M quite often carry to the category of difficult instinctive reflexes (see), or instincts (see). At the same time there are also qualitative differences of M. from reflex forms of activity. In 1916 I. P. Pavlov in the article «Reflex of the Purpose» pointed that «the main inclinations» of an organism represent unlike reflex reactions to external stimuluses such form of activity when the animals and the person stimulated by internal requirements persistently look for special external irritants. Persistent search distinguishes M. from reflex reactions to special incentives.
Social M. of the person, such as aspiration to education, mastering of a certain sort a profession, knowledge of art, literature unlike biol. M form individually in the course of public education, a cut substantially influences at the person and on biol. M. So, hunger, fear, sexual excitements get social coloring from the person, and their satisfaction is dated for the certain social caused place and time.
Both biological, and social M. define practically all forms of the expressed purposeful activity of living beings. At the same time a peculiar hierarchy of M is observed. The requirement conducting in the biological or social plan becomes dominating, and the others are built in relation to it in a certain hierarchical dependence. After satisfaction of the leading requirement dominating there is other, most important requirement in these conditions etc. In M.'s formation and their hierarchical change the leading role is played by the principle dominants (see).
the Problem M. historically developed at psychologists. Therefore the majority of theories of M. has purely descriptive character. The greatest recognition was gained by two extreme points of view of psychologists on the nature M. Tak, McDougall (W. Mac Dougall, 1908), Vudvort (R. S. Woodworth, 1968) and Hebb (D. Lake of Hebb, 1955) claim that M. are defined by internal inborn energy, edges is implemented in specific behavior even in the absence of special external irritants.
Adhere to the opposite point of view Lorentz (To. Lorenz, 1950) and Tinbergen (N. Tinbergen, 1951), considering that internal motivational programs are developed only in the presence of certain guides of environmental factors. However Young (R. T. of Young, 1961) assumes that both certain internal (inborn) and acquired in individual life behavior models can be the directing M.'s factors.
Gradually most of researchers [Carly (Karli, 1968); Morgan (S. T. of Morgan, 1969), etc.] began to incline to the compromise point of view, according to a cut any M. has two components: one — purely power — is the inducing factor, and another — directing animals to achievement of the goal.
According to the theory of «decrease in an inclination» M. are defined by motivation of animals to reduction of these or those emotional feelings accompanying formation of requirement (Hebb, 1953). At the same time hungry inclinations are considered as aspiration biol, an object to get rid of the «hungry» pains arising in epigastric area at reduction of an empty stomach, M. of thirst — as the aspiration to get rid of unpleasant feelings of dryness in oral cavities and throats etc. In an origin of emotional feelings the leading role belongs to nervous impulsation from certain peripheral bodies. U. Kennon (1927) proved value of the alarm system of various departments of a digestive tract in M.'s origin of hunger and thirst and, thereby, passed from studying of purely behavioural party of M. to studying of their internal mechanisms. However U. Kennon's representation did not find convincing experimental confirmation. In particular, in 1950 by N. F. Popov it was shown that at full denervation of a digestive tract at animals M. of hunger remain.
All this promoted studying of value in M.'s emergence of humoral factors, napr, «hungry blood» (I. P. Pavlov, 1911). Nevertheless observations, first of all on the accrete twins having general circulation and various innervation the leading value of humoral factors in formation of M called into question. Attempts of more profound analysis of motivational vozbuzhdeniye resulted in need to combine the nervous and humoral mechanisms participating in M.'s emergence in the uniform neurohumoral mechanism. So there were concepts of multiple genesis of M. [F. A. Beach, 1950; Stellar (E. Stellar), 1954; Morgan, 1969, etc.].
To the middle of 20 century interest of researchers of mechanisms M. gradually began to concentrate on studying of a role of c. N of page in formation
M. Morgan in 1959 by analogy with the «central exciting state» formulated by Ch. Sherrington put forward idea of «the central motivational state». Del (R. of Dell, 1958) proved the point of view, according to a cut M.'s formation is caused by the nonspecific ascending activating influences reticular formation (see) on a cerebral cortex. The theory of activation of emotions is close to these representations (D. Lindsli, 1951), according to a cut the leading role in emotional states also belongs to a reticular formation.
Stellar in 1954 put forward the theory, on a cut M.'s formation is connected with the activity of a hypothalamus caused in turn by influences of cortical impulses, the brake hypothalamic centers, sensitive incentives, humoral factors, etc. This theory found confirmation in numerous researches. So, Andersson (V. of Andersson, 1952) caused the expressed drinking reaction in goats by means of electric or chemical irritation of back lateral department of a hypothalamus in the field of the arch.
Anand and Brobek (V. K. of Anand, J. R. Brobeck, 1951) for the first time described emergence of the directed feeding responses at the fed animals at stimulation at them lateral department of a hypothalamus. These and other experiments allowed to speak about existence at the level of a hypothalamus of the so-called motivational centers of hunger and thirst, aggression and fear, sexual reactions etc. At the same time it is shown that in M.'s formation various biol, qualities along with hypothalamic structures take part limbic and reticular formations of a brain, including various departments of bark of big hemispheres (see. Hypothalamus , Cerebral cortex , Limbic system ). However the question of merging of nervous structures of various level in formation of motivational excitement a long time remained open.
New perspectives in studying of mechanisms M. were presented by the theory of functional system of P. K. Anokhin (see. Functional systems ).
According to P. K. Anokhin, M. stages are a component of the complete organization of the central architecture of the system and organized purposeful behavioural act of any complexity, and in particular afferent synthesis (see). The theory funkts, systems discloses new aspects of peripheral and central mechanisms M.
System mechanisms of biological motivations
the Central link funkts, systems of any class the result, useful to an organism, defining an optimum current of various parties of the general metabolic processes in an organism is. As metabolic processes constantly are also closely connected with consumption and release of certain substances (see. Metabolism and energy ), in an organism it is always tended to fiziol, to shifts of certain homeostatic indicators. These deviations of indicators internal environment of an organism (see) from the level providing his normal metabolism define in each this timepoint biol, requirements of an organism. Leaders from them are food, drinking, sexual, temperature also other requirements.
Animals can feel at the same time several need, however there is always the leading parameter of the general metabolic requirement — individuals, dominating, most important for survival, or her sort requirement, edges and is the cornerstone of the behavioural act directed to its satisfaction.
As show fiziol, observations, internal metabolic requirement finds the reflection first of all in activity of certain internals (e.g., a digestive tract, generative organs etc.). At the same time the humoral factors which are some kind of prenet results of activity funkts, systems act as the leading indicators of fabric changes. In blood special substances of the peptide nature (so-called mesedzher) bearing information on specific need of an organism are found.
Thus, the theory funkts, systems on a compromise basis resolves an issue of value of nervous and humoral factors in the course of M.'s formation, approves need of participation in this process for a certain temporary sequence of both factors. As a rule, the nervous alarm system about requirement going from specialized internals arises on time of the first. It to some extent defines formation of secondary humoral changes, to-rye in turn promote transition of the motivational excitement to the category dominating (see. Neurohumoral regulation ).
Transformation of internal requirement in motivational excitement. It is established that the nervous and humoral influences accompanying formation of the dominating requirement are addressed to special zones of a brain. These zones are found by hl. obr. in the field of a hypothalamus. However in relation to gas and food requirements similar structures are revealed, respectively, in the field of a livor and a reticular formation of a mesencephalon.
Existence of the neurons perceiving the alarm system from a «empty» stomach and factors of «hungry» blood is revealed Microelectrode by method preferential in the field of a lateral hypothalamus. Separate neurons of this area show clear reactions to introduction by a hungry animal both food in a stomach, and glucose in blood. Feature of these neurons of hypothalamic area consists in their close funkts, contacts with circulatory capillaries and in specifics of their metabolic processes. In particular, each group of neurons of hypothalamic area uses preferential certain humoral factors in the metabolism. At change of their contents these neurons selectively come to a condition of excitement. Thus, the specified neurons have properties of reception only of certain internal requirement that allows to consider sites of the hypothalamic area, specific on metabolic processes, as the motivational centers.
Existence of several hypothalamic motivational centers is established. In the field of ventromedialny kernels of a hypothalamus and in its lateral departments the neurons selectively sensitive to the content in blood of glucose are found; in the field of supraoptic and paraventrikulyarny kernels of a hypothalamus — the neurons sensitive to the level of osmotic pressure of blood, in the field of a back hypothalamus — to noradrenaline etc. Electric stimulation of these areas of a hypothalamus causes respectively food, drinking M. and M. of fear.
Process of excitement of the motivational centers of a hypothalamus is carried out, as a rule, rhythmic — as so-called. trigger mechanisms (see); excitement in these cells arises not at once at emergence of this or that internal requirement, and gradually thanks to gradualny increase of excitability to a critical level. At achievement of this level of a cell begin to send rhythmic categories, showing high activity up to the moment of satisfaction of the corresponding requirement.
Thanks to extensive bonds with other departments of a brain the excitement which arose in hypothalamic area extends to other departments of a brain, especially limbic and reticular educations, up to bark of big hemispheres. At the same time distribution of motivational excitement on various structures of a brain happens gradualno depending on expressiveness of initial requirement. At weak irritations (e.g., irritation of a lateral hypothalamus at the fed animals) activation of electric activity of limbic formations of a brain, such as kernels of a partition, hippocampus and almond is observed; during the strengthening of irritation — regional changes of electric activity of preferential front departments of bark of big hemispheres. At last, at stronger irritation of lateral departments of a hypothalamus as well as at long starvation, due to the ascending activating influences of a reticular formation of a mesencephalon generalized activation of EEG of all bark of big parencephalons is observed.
It is characteristic that at distribution of the ascending activating influences of the hypothalamic motivational centers on limbic structures of a brain at animals are shown only approximate and research reactions (see). At distribution of these influences on a cerebral cortex animals show the expressed purposeful motivational reactions — eating of food, defensive reactions etc. Thus, in a basis biol. M of any quality lie the ascending activating influences of the specific hypothalamic centers on bark of big hemispheres (fig. 1). These influences caused by this or that internal requirement make a power component of motivational excitement.
Various departments of bark and other structures of a brain in turn exert the descending impacts on the initiative motivational centers of a hypothalamus. So, by V. G. Zilov (1979) it is shown that at food motivational excitement front departments of a cerebral cortex (at rabbits) and dorsal departments of a hippocampus exert brake impacts on the food centers of a lateral hypothalamus while occipital bark and a reticular formation of a mesencephalon — the facilitating influences.
All this indicates that motivational excitement is the qualitatively special, integrated condition of a brain, at Krom on the basis of the ascending activating influences of the hypothalamic centers each structure of a brain makes the contribution and that samm creates the integration of vozbuzhdeniye, specific to each M., bringing in each case to a specific form of purposeful activity. However it must be kept in mind that the behavior evolving from M. is result of primary integration at the hypothalamic level of neurohumoral factors.
Braking mechanisms of initial (instinctive) M. in especially clear form gain development in the person, education to-rogo is caused by the social moments and directed to creation of ability in a certain situation to suppress biological M.
Vysshiye, or social, M. make a basis practically of all irregular shapes of purposeful activity of the person acquired by it in the course of individual training and accumulation of experience. They combine all forms of the highest motives of the person caused by action on it the social environment including political, moral and esthetic ideals, aspiration to knowledge of the world around, etc.
the Highest M. play an important role in formation of the person as persons. Idiosyncrasy of the highest M. is that they unlike biol. The m (the evolving only internal neurohumoral irritations) form substantially under the influence of external (obstanovochny), and first of all social, irritants. In the highest M.' formation the person as L. I. Bozovic (1972) considers, the significant role is played by M. of human inquisitiveness. Thus, the highest M. represent result of life experience, education and training of each individual.
As A. N. Leontyev believes, at the person the highest motivations unlike the lowest (biological) M. are under construction on the basis of complexes of vozbuzhdeniye, the forming hl. obr. in a cerebral cortex.
According to P. K. Anokhin's representations, the highest M. of the person form in c. N of page on the basis of mechanisms of afferent synthesis of the vozbuzhdeniye caused by influences of irritants of internal and external environment taking into account individual experience. It follows from this that the highest M. of the person in the basis have biol. M, but in the course of ontogenesis they can form also on the basis of mechanisms memories (see), including biological and social aspects.
Properties of motivational excitement
Fiziol, allowed to establish experiments that motivational excitement various biol, qualities (e.g., at hunger, thirst or fear) are characterized by the same changes of electric activity of brain structures in the form of EEG-activation, however each of them has emphasized specifics.
Specifics of motivational excitement consist as in special corticosubcortical integration of vozbuzhdeniye, at a cut in each M. various structures of a brain, and in features of the chemical mechanisms which are the cornerstone of motivational reactions make the contribution. It is established, e.g., that the defensive motivation of fear at animals is selectively blocked by alpha adrenoblocker (aminazine), and food M. of hungry animals — cholinolytic (atropine or amizyl).
In structure of motivational excitement the hypothalamic centers possess the special, leading role. At disturbance of various departments of bark of big hemispheres or limbic structures of a brain biol. M do not disappear, and, as a rule, gain the changed character, being shown either in weakened, or in the strengthened form. At the same time disturbance of the hypothalamic centers is completely eliminirut by M. Animals with bilaterally destroyed lateral departments of a hypothalamus can lie, e.g., in an environment of the most delicious food and, without having touched it, to die from exhaustion.
Besides, in 1966 by A. A. Panfilov it is established that the Hypothalamic centers in structure of hungry motivational excitement are many times more sensitive to chemical substances, napr, to cholinolytics, than bark of big hemispheres.
In a habit view the mechanism of formation of food motivation at hungry animals reminds origins of vozbuzhdeniye in a sinus node of a cardiac muscle where the special driver, «a zadavatel of a rhythm», cordial reductions — so-called is located. pacemaker (see). Similar to processes of distribution of vozbuzhdeniye on a cardiac muscle, the excitement which initially arose in the motivational centers of a hypothalamus generalizutsya widely in the ascending direction up to a cerebral cortex. In a sinus node of a cardiac muscle excitement arises rhythmic. The similar picture takes place in the motivational centers of a hypothalamus. Excitement in these centers under natural conditions also arises periodically, on trigger type, in process of increase of the corresponding requirement to a critical level. It remains while there is this requirement, and is eliminated after its satisfaction.
The pacemaker of heart has the excitability increased in comparison with other formations of heart to specific humoral or other irritants. In the same way Hypothalamic motivational structures in comparison with other structures of a brain involved in motivational excitement have hypererethism to electric and chemical irritants. In relation to hypothalamic motivational structures as well as in a cardiac muscle, other structures of a brain are built on a certain gradient of excitability up to a cerebral cortex inclusive.
The sinus node of the automaticity of heart keeps other centers of the heart automaticity in a certain subordination, to-rye have lower excitability. In the same way as it was stated above, the motivational centers of a hypothalamus hold in funkts, dependences of structure of other levels of a brain. Switching off of the hypothalamic centers leads to disintegration of all system of elements, united in motivational excitement.
Everything stated above allowed P. K. Anokhin (1968) and K. To V. Sudakov (1970) to formulate the concept about a «peysmekerny» role of the hypothalamic centers in formation of the main biol. M.
Peysmekernaya a role of the hypothalamic centers in formation biol. The m defines also medical tactics of influence on M. with the help pharmakol, means, to-rye first of all (and in smaller doses) affect pacemakers of motivational vozbuzhdeniye, destroying by that all corticosubcortical integration of the corresponding M. (on so-called rubilnikovy type).
It should be noted that the leading properties of those irritants are reflected in structure of each motivational excitement in process filo-and ontogenesis, to-rye satisfy the requirement which is the cornerstone of the corresponding M. Such property of motivational excitement represents one of forms the advancing real events of vozbuzhdeniye (see. Acceptor of results of action ). The advancing excitement forms in structure of motivational excitement on the basis of the previous reinforcements. Each irritant leaves the corresponding mark (engramma) on structure of motivational excitement, to-ry every time is activated at emergence of motivational excitement (fig. 2).
Forming by the advancing principle, this component M. is directing, and to it there is a constant comparison of parameters of really achieved results. Finally such mechanism directs animals to full-fledged satisfaction of the leading requirements and allows to correct wrong actions.
The device of anticipation of the result satisfying the dominating requirement has dynamic difficult architecture. It consistently joins nervous elements of various levels of c. the N of page, each of to-rykh assumes the return afferentation) from a certain parameter of a reinforcement. So, in a case food M. neurons of visual bark accept afferentation) about outward of food, neurons of somatosensory bark — about hiting at by it, neurons of insulyarny bark — about a flavor of food, neurons of a thalamus — about receipt of food in an oral cavity, neurons of a ventromedialny hypothalamus — about receipt of food in a stomach, neurons of a reticular formation of a mesencephalon — influence of humoral factors of the arrived food (in particular, amino acids) etc. Besides it should be noted that in this structure of motivational excitement by the advancing principle all subsequent stages of satisfaction of this or that requirement are programmed. So, in structure of food reinforcement already at the sight of food all nervous elements accepting afterwards the alarm system about passing of food on different departments of a digestive tract including intake of nutrients in blood are activated.
The volume of the advancing reactions in structure of motivational excitement are less at newborns, and also at the animals acting according to inborn instinctive programs. This volume gradually extends in process of training of an organism at numerous satisfaction of the same requirement and in general in the course of communication with the outside world.
A role of motivations in complete behavioural acts
M., being a component of complete behavioural acts, essentially define their formation and implementation. First of all it should be noted that motivational excitement, due to activation of special emotsiogenny structures of a brain, leads to subjective feeling of the corresponding requirements — i.e. to emotions (see). It, in turn, allows the person and animals it is reliable to estimate the arisen requirement and to construct the adequate activity directed to satisfaction of this requirement. To m of hunger, e.g., it is subjectively strained and unpleasant; creating a certain tension of an organism, it promotes active search of the substances satisfying the need of an organism for them. In process of the numerous satisfactions of requirement which are usually followed by positive emotions anticipation of these emotions everything more joins in the device of the directing component M. In such way, in particular, forms appetite (see).
M are the essential factor defining extraction from memory of experiment on satisfaction of this or that requirement. T. N. Oniani et al. (1968) was shown, e.g., that at animals in process of saturation duration of the delayed choice behaviors of the party of food reinforcement is reduced. Besides, M. determine durability of storing (see. Memory ).
M sharply increase sensitivity of the corresponding receptors. So, at M. of hunger sensitivity of flavoring receptors of an oral cavity increases, at sexual M. — receptors of generative organs etc. At M. the limit of discrimination of visual irritations, convergent ability of nervous cells of a cerebral cortex increase, their sensitivity to neuromediator substances p to peptides changes. All these mechanisms of selective setup of M. of peripheral and central educations prepare an organism on the corresponding reinforcement, and also promote its optimum implementation. Therefore, any M. represents initial, qualitatively special state, a cut defines purposeful activity of an organism and the nature of its response to action of numerous irritants of the environment. In I. P. Pavlov's laboratory it was established for a long time that food conditioned reflexes are easily developed and clearly are shown only at hungry animals; at fed. animals the same irritants often do not cause any reaction.
Thus, motivational excitement can be considered as the active «filter» defining emphasized reactivity of animals in relation to the irritants of the environment promoting satisfaction of the requirement which is the cornerstone of everyone M. The active nature of motivational excitement also consists in it.
Pathology of motivations
the Problem M. is important for medicine and pedagogics. Formation of the personality, her individual and public interests, and also emergence various patol, states is defined by inborn mechanisms biol. M. On domination biol. M (food, aggressive, defensive, sexual, etc.) reveal character of the personality. Nevertheless in formation of characterologic features of the identity of the person the leading role belongs to social M. Vyrazhennaya social M. always defines commitment of the personality, her ability to work actively according to legal and moral (ethical) installations.
To patol. M belong many artificially created inclinations, napr, drug addiction, alcoholism, smoking etc. In experiments on animals it is shown that as a result of the long use by animals of alcohol and the drugs replacing satisfaction natural biol, requirements in hypothalamic structures of a brain on the basis of change of metabolic reactions the artificial pacemakers creating active excitement of structures of a brain in the absence of drugs and leading to the expressed inclination to their use form. Therefore, the problem of fight against alcoholism and drug addiction is substantially connected with search of the means capable to destroy artificial motivational pacemakers of hypothalamic area.
M.'s frustration are shown also in their abnormal strengthening (bulimia, a giperseksualizm, a polydipsia etc.) or suppression (an aphagia, an adipsia, impotence etc.). In cases of selective frustration of mechanisms any one or several M. quite often there is a formation of the psychopathological personality.
Idea of M.'s formation determines a possibility of the selective directed influence by the peysmekerny principle on patol, forms M. Pharmakol, and other types of influence shall be directed to metabolism of the motivational pacemakers having hypersensitivity in comparison with other elements included in motivational excitement. By such directed impacts on the most vulnerable link patol. The m can destroy all system patol, motivational excitement, including the related forms patol, behavioural reactions, patol, skills etc.
Methods of studying of motivations. The m as the active condition of an organism causing its purposeful activity study both on intensity of an inclination, and on intensity of satisfaction of the requirements which are the cornerstone of M. Using elektrofiziol, methods (see. Electrophysiology ) it was possible to study M. on character of an izkhmeneniye on EEG, evoked potentials, pulse activity of separate neurons of a brain. However at the same time it is necessary to be sure that the researcher deals with the dominating motivation of one quality.
For understanding of mechanisms of motivational excitement methods of electric irritation or destruction of separate structures of a brain in combination with behavioural and electrophysiologic methods have a certain value. At M.'s studying also methods of chemical stimulation of various structures of a brain through special electrodes, and also a method of a microionophoresis for leading of physiologically active agents to separate neurons are used.
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K. V. Sudakov.