MOTION DESEASE (synonym: a disease of the movement, a kinetoza) — disturbance of the general condition of the person at impact on it of mechanical and optokinetic irritations during active or passive movements in space.
Separate forms U., the movements arising at various ways, call a sea, air, railway, automobile, liftny disease; at astronauts note a space form of a disease of the movement. Basic etiol. a factor At. impact on a vestibular mechanism of the accelerations (see) arising in the course of multidirectional movements of a body in space is.
A sea sickness arises at a combination of various guides of rolling of the vessel: onboard (side), kilevy and so-called the ransacking movements.
Aeroembolism develops at «bumpiness» of the airplane as a result of its vertical movement up and down, during the «roving» when the airplane makes rotary motions in the horizontal plane, at hit of the airplane in the descending flows of air (air pockets).
Railway and automobile diseases develop at cumulation of vestibular irritations (as a result of the small accelerations arising during the braking or increase in speed, and also at vertical movement) and optokinetic irritations.
The MOTION DESEASE 29
Symptoms of a space form of a disease of the movement are shown within the first week of the period of adaptation of the astronaut to zero gravity at the active movements by the head (see Zero gravity). There are significant individual differences in predisposition of the person to this form U. and in development of its symptoms in time.
Nearly 90% of the persons which for the first time got at the sea are subject to a sea sickness. Aeroembolism is observed approximately at 12 — 13% of passengers during flights by vintomotorny airplanes and at 1 — 3% of passengers during flights by airplanes with jets. The space form of a disease of the movement is noted approximately at 1/3 Soviet and American astronauts who made space flights.
Frequency of development At. depends on a functional condition of an organism. Are exposed to a thicket At. persons with diseases went. - kish. path, cardiovascular system, etc. At professional seamen and pilots, cadets of aviation and sea schools At. it is observed much less often that it is connected with strict professional selection, and also their training in the course of training and the subsequent work.
For emergence At. the mental condition of the person is important. Emotionally unstable persons and people who are easily giving in to suggestion are subject At. in much bigger degree. To development At. also asthenoneurotic states promote (nervousness, fear, etc.). Essential value for development At. have disturbances of work, rest and food, the excess weight of a body.
To number known fiziol. mechanisms U. carry: reflex, uslovnoreflektorny, disturbance of functional interaction of the analyzers responsible for space perception, weakening of reciprocal influences from the otolitovy device on function of semicircular channels of a labyrinth (see. Vestibular analyzer). There is also an opinion that individual exposure At. depends on constitutional insufficiency limbiko-gipotalamo - a reticular complex (see. Limbic system).
At. consider as the expressed vegetative crisis of parasympathetic character arising at long irritation of afferent systems (the vestibular, visual, motive mechanism, internals, skin). The dominating value in development At. have irritations of a vestibular analyzer that is confirmed by lack of a motion desease at persons with an inborn underdevelopment of a labyrinth. Irritants are the inertial shifts arising in semicircular channels at impact of angular accelerations and partially accelerations of Korio-lisa (see Coriolis acceleration), the shift of an otolitovy membrane of rather voloskovy cells at impact of rectilinear accelerations and the changed gravity.
The most widespread modern theory At. the theory of the touch conflict is. According to this theory in all cases when develops At., the signals going from receptors of eyes, a vestibular mechanism or other bodies and systems stimuliruyekhmy differ in forces influencing an organism from the signals «expected» c. N of page on the basis of last experience. The similar touch mismatch can be shown by a number of the neurovegetative and touch reactions characterizing
U. V condition space flight vestibulo-vegetative frustration (see. Vestibular symptom complex) develop owing to disturbance of interaction between semicircular channels and the otolitovy device, a mezhan of l and mash bonds and, perhaps, as a result hemodynamically x changes.
A state At. can arise and uslovnoreflektorno. The persons who earlier tested At. on the river or the sea, begin to test attacks At. at a view of a water surface or even on a picture with the image of the rough sea.
At. it is shown by a characteristic complex of symptoms of disturbance of activity of c. the N of page, cardiovascular system, went. - kish. path, neuroendocrinal system and metabolism. At At. distinguish pathognomonic symptoms (pallor of skin, cold sweat, a sensation of discomfort in epigastric area, nausea, desires on vomiting, vomiting) and often observed accompanying symptoms (slackness, apathy, drowsiness, a headache, feeling of heat, dizziness, plentiful salivation or dryness in a mouth, an eructation, loss of appetite, a meteorism). At At. blood circulation is broken, it is preferential in a brain, the stroke output of heart (see Heart) and the volume of the circulating blood decreases (see Blood circulation), heart rate and breath changes, the ABP goes down, the stake-laptoidnoye a state can develop (see the Collapse).
According to the nature of the arisen disturbances conditionally allocate the nervous, gastrointestinal, cardiovascular and mixed forms U.
Symptoms At. can decrease at certain levels of emotional pressure of the person. Cases when the pilots subject At are known. in peace time, in fighting flights never tested this state.
For medicinal therapy of the persons subject At., use drugs of cholinolytic action (see. Cholinolytic substances), antihistaminic substances (see), combinations of neuroleptics (see Neuroleptics) with ps them about I stimulate Russian cabbage soup of m and Wednesdays with t you
(see) or spasmolysants of myotropic action (see Antispasmodics) with vitamins (see) etc. In nek-ry cases the positive effect is rendered by intravenous drop injection of solution of sodium bicarbonate or a candle with this drug.
Prevention of a motion desease at pilots, seamen, astronauts is performed by the trainings (see. Vestibular training) directed to increase in statokinetic stability of an organism, carrying out a dignity. - a gigabyte. actions, psychoprophylaxis, use of headlights-makol. and other means.
Apply three types of a training: active (performance of a complex of special physical exercises), passive (use of various stands) and mixed (a combination of elements of an active and passive training). The important place is allocated to an autogenic training (see Psychotherapy), to self-checking of nek-ry vegetative reactions by means of systems with biol. a feed-back (see) that provides a possibility of the prevention of development of symptoms At. or considerably weakens their expressiveness.
Prevention of vestibular frustration in flight or during swimming includes creation optimum a gigabyte. conditions, rational alternation of work and rest, correct catering services. Bibliography: B and r N and c to and y V. N. Sea sickness, M., 1983; In about about in and A.I. and About to at N e in R. A. Rocking and fight against it, L., 1964, bibliogr.; And l -
l e R. R. Quantitative assessment of clinical displays of a disease of the movement, Tousle, biol., t. 15, No. 3, page 72, 1981;
Kassil G. N. and about l I to about in B. I. Rol of humoral hormonal factors in predisposition of the person to a motion desease, Fiziol. person, t. 3, No. 4,
page 614, 1 977; L at to about m with to and I am N. Ya. and N and - to about l with to and I am M. I. Research of pharmaceuticals against a motion desease, L., 1971, bibliogr.; Fundamentals of bioastronautics and medicine, under the editorship of O. G. Gazenko and M. Calvin, t. 2 — 3, M., 1975; Page and-p about in II. And. and Coolah sh about in V. I. Sea sickness and efficiency of crew of the surface ship, Voyen. - medical zhurn.,
No. 4, with, 88, 1975; With about l about d about in N and to F. A. K to a question of exposure of the person of a disease of the movement, Vestn. otorinolar., No. 4, page 59, 1978; The Reference book on bioastronautics and medicine, under the editorship of
A. I. Burnazyan and O. G. Gazenko, page 30, M., 1983; Usachev V. V. Physiological reactions at a motion desease, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 8, page 56, 1973; At with and -
h e in V. V. and Sh and N to and r e in with to and I am I. P. Bolezn of the movement and cerebral circulation, Vestn. otorinolar., No. 1, page 21, 1974; Hilov K. L. Function of an organ of equilibrium and disease of movement, L., 1969; Ecological human physiology, Adaptation of the person to extreme conditions of the environment, under the editorship of O. G. Gazenko, page 194, M., 1979. A. P. Popov.