From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MONKEYS — the most high-organized and close mammals of group of primacies (Primates) to the person. Lakes are included into a suborder of Anthropoidea, in structure to-rogo a superfamily of Hominoides includes the highest, or humanoid, monkeys (anthropoids).

The suborder of Anthropoidea is divided into 2 infraotryad (section); 1) broad-nosed primacies (Platyrrhini) are monkeys of the New World (i.e. residents of hot districts of South and Central America) and 2) uzkonosy primacies (Catarrhini) are the lowest and highest monkeys of the Old World (inhabitants of Asia and Africa). Broad-nosed O. include 3 families: igrunkoobrazny (Callitrichidae), kallimikoobrazny (Cal-limicoidae) and kaputsinoobrazny (Cebidae). Uzkonosye O. is combined by 3 families: martyshkoobrazny (Cercopithecidae), gibbonoobrazny, or small humanoid (Hylobatidae), and pongidoobrazny, or large humanoid (Pongidae).

The chimpanzee, gorilla and orangutan enter into family of humanoid. There are 6 families O., more than 30 childbirth and apprx. 160 types. In drawings those types of O. are shown, to-rye are used in medicobiological researches.

Assume that O. came from fossil dolgopyat, to-rye were widely settled in North America during an era of a Palaeocene and Eocene, in Europe — during an era of Eocene. The American O. developed irrespective of monkeys of the Old World. Fossil Miocene and Pliocene uzkonosy O.' remains are found in Europe, Asia, Africa. Miocene driopitek as probable ancestors of the person and modern humanoid O. are of the greatest interest (see. Anthropogenesis ). The type of the biped highest O., morphologically close to the African Australopithecuses, applying natural objects as tools was a possible ancestor of the most ancient people.

The sizes and weight (weight) of a body of O. strongly vary; weight fluctuates ranging from 175 — 400 g (ordinary tamarins) to 100 kg (orangutans) and is higher (gorilla). Length of a body can make from 10 — 15 cm (dwarfish tamarins) to 180 cm and more (gorilla). The tail at one O. is longer than a body (e.g., howlers, koata, ordinary monkeys), at others is shorter (uakar, gelada). At brown makak, pig-tailed macaques, and also at mandrills and simias a tail very short, at humanoid O. and makak of magot it is absent.

Good development of the five-fingered prehensile extremities adapted to a lasagna on trees is characteristic of O. Front extremities of almost same length, as well as back, only at humanoid they are much longer than back. The thumb of a brush in a varying degree opposed to other fingers, svoystven only to monkeys of the Old World. The thumb of foot is developed well at all O. and is capable to be removed in the parties. All fingers are supplied with nails (flatness), igrunkoobrazny O. have kogteobrazny nails. For O. development of tactile skin combs (papillary lines) is peculiar, to-rye entirely cover palmar and bottom surfaces; smooth sites of skin without combs occur only at night O. and nek-ry the tamarin. From sense bodys of the greatest development reached acoustic organs and especially organs of sight. Sight at O., as well as at the person, color, binocular; in a retina of eyes there are a macula lutea and the central pole. The head roundish with the extended front department. The outside nose is strongly developed only at nosachy, to a lesser extent — at rinopitek and simias («snub-nosed» O.). The sizes of a skull and a ratio of its brain and front departments strongly vary. On large humanoid O.' skulls there are crests. At all humanoid O. mimic muscles are well developed and differentiated. O.'s brain rather large, is rich with furrows and crinkles; big hemispheres cover a cerebellum, the area of associative fields sharply increases in comparison with other animals. Tooth system heterodont, diverse (cutters, canines, small and big molars) and difiodontny (two changes of teeth — milk and constant). Stomach, as a rule, idle time; at tonkotel (family of martyshkoobrazny) feeding on exclusively vegetable food, a stomach difficult. The caecum is available for all O., a worm-shaped shoot — only at humanoid. Zashchechny bags (karmanoobrazny deepenings of a mucous membrane of cheeks) serving for storage of caches are available only for the lowest uzkonosy Lakes. Indumentum of O. is well developed, sometimes on separate body parts reaches big length, forming a mane, moustaches, a beard, brushes on ears. As a rule, the face and an auricle are deprived of hair. The lowest uzkonosy O.' most has so-called sciatic callosities — the naked body parts covered with reinforced keratosic skin. Sciatic callosities and adjacent naked sites of skin are usually brightly painted. The bright coloring of indumentum also is characteristic of many O.

O. all the year round breed. Seasonality of reproduction is characteristic of many. Pregnancy at the lowest O. lasts 4 — 6 months, at humanoid 210 — 275 days. One cub is born, as a rule, (at the tamarin 2 — 3), to-ry a long time we depend on mother. The lowest O. reach puberty in 3 — 5 years, humanoid by 7 — 10 years.

Longevity at the lowest O. makes 20 — 40 years, at humanoid 40 — 50 years and more.

Islands live in the basic in the hot districts of Asia, Africa, South and Central America, approximately between 40 °C. highway and 40 ° SL. There live O. groups, families or herds. In most cases live on trees and lead a day life, except for one look — a night monkey; there are land and semi-land forms. As a rule, in jointly the living groups O. there are accurate hierarchical relations: each member of group has a certain public rank, submitting to higher individuals and subordinating itself monkeys of the lowest rank. Makak and hamadryads at the lowest step have old females and teenagers, the highest is occupied by a male — the leader of herd.

Means of communication at O. are diverse: sounds, gestures, mimicry, poses, even look. So, researchers contain at baboons 16, and at makak and a chimpanzee of St. 30 various sounds of communication. Century of N of of monkeys it is rich and various. Nek-ry types of O. are capable to use stones, sticks and other objects as primitive tools for production of food or for self-defense.

O.'s similarity is established unique biol (especially humanoid, first of all a chimpanzee and gorillas) with person (see). This similarity is caused by extraordinary high degree of a homology of their genetic material. By method of hybridization of DNA it is shown that the percent of a homology in relation to the person at birds makes 10%, At mice apprx. 20%, at large mammal 30 — 35%, at makakov-Rhesus factors apprx. 70%, at a chimpanzee of 85 — 95%. So high similarity of DNA, naturally, finds reflection in a homology of blood proteins and tissues of the person and monkeys. So, according to G. A. Annenkov (1974), for protein of transferrin of a chimpanzee and a gorilla looking alike this protein of the person (as well as the majority of chains of immunoglobulins) makes 100%, for transferrin of monkeys of the Old World of 50 — 75%, semi-monkeys of 4 — 10%, for other animals it is even less or absolutely is absent.

Summing up the data on similarity of proteins of a chimpanzee and the person received by means of different methods (molecular and biological, immunological, physical and chemical etc.), King and Wilson (M.S. of King, A. S. Wilson, 1975) showed that similarity of proteins at them on average exceeds 99%. The homology of the person with anthropoids on antigens of erythrocytes (a blood group of AB0) and analogy on this indicator to other O. Nablyudayetsya proximity of the person to O. and on other genetic systems of blood is shown; the Rhesus factor of blood, as we know, was found in makakov-Rhesus factors. Similarity of blood of the person and monkeys does possible transfusion of compatible blood by it from the person.

O.'s similarity to the person also according to cytogenetics is big. By method of a denaturation with the subsequent coloring of chromosomes (a method of disks) it is shown that different anthropoids have 15 — 17 couples of chromosomes and at the person are homologous. During the studying of karyotypes more than at 60 species of primacies, including the person, the perfect analogy approximately for 70% of all not varying euchromatic strips is established.

Also other indicators of similarity of the person and O. (behavioural reactions, character of an ovarialnomenstrualny cycle, character and intensity of metabolic processes, balance of hormones etc.) are known. All this, being the basis for practical use of O. in medical researches, generated the specific direction of modern experimental science — medical primatology. Lakes are applied during the studying of many inf. diseases of the person; only on O. measles, a typhoid, poliomyelitis, hepatitis, gonorrhea and many other diseases are reproduced. The culture of tissues of kidneys of O. is used as test system during the studying of many viruses of the person. On O. study residual neurovirulence of vaccines against poliomyelitis, and also efficiency and safety of other vaccines.

O. in researches on pharmacology and toxicology, especially neuro psychopharmacology where in some cases at the person and O. the similar effect, other than what is observed at all other animals is noted are widely used. On O. study teratogenic influence of drugs, questions of regulation of fertility, hormonal interrelations etc.

Value O. in researches of physiology of a brain, many problems of psychosomatic medicine, in cardiology is big.

Lakes are protected, the majority of their types is included in international «Red List». Especially large humanoid O.' population, number to-rykh catastrophically was considerably reduced decreases. Populations of an orangutan, e.g., remained only in the nek-ry districts of Sumatra and Kalimantan and contain no more than 3 — 5 thousand individuals. In districts of the Equatorial Africa (Congo, Cameroon, Rwanda, etc.) some thousands of gorillas remained, the number of a chimpanzee decreases.

As the nosological profile of diseases of O. is similar with human, at non-compliance with safety measures of O. in the conditions of bondage can be infected with causative agents of diseases of the person, and also, on the contrary, to be a source of infections, dangerous to people: rage, encephalitis In, a viral hepatitis, measles, hemorrhagic fevers, smallpox, tuberculosis, shigelloses, salmonelloses, an amebiasis, parasitic diseases.

Bibliography: Annenkov G. A. Serum proteins of primacies, M., 1974; M. Primata's Weber, the lane with it., M. — L., 1936; Life of animals, under the editorship of JI. A. Zenkevich, etc., t. 6, page 553, M., 1971; H of the EU of t at r x M. F. Primatologiya and anthropogenesis, M., 1960; Roginsky Ya. Ya. and Levin of M. G. Antropologiya, M., 1978; Friedman E. P. Primacies, M., 1979, bibliogr.; Sh and l of l of ER of J. B. God under the sign of a gorilla, the lane with English, M., 1968; Benveniste R. E. a. Toda-@ about G. J. Evolution of type With viral genes, I. Nucleic acid from baboon type G virus as a measure of divergence among primate species, Proc. nat. Acad. Sci. (Wash.), v. 71, p. 4315, 1974; Dutrillaux H. Chromosomal evolution in primates, tentative phylogeny from Microcebus murinus (Prosimian) to man, Hum. Genet., v. 48, p. 215, 1979; King M. C. a. W i 1 s o n A. C. Evolution at two levels in humans and chimpanzees, Science, v. 188, p. 107, 1975; Napier J. R. a. Napier P. H. A handbook of living primates, L. — N. Y., 1967.

B. A. Lapin, T. D. Gladkova.