From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MIDWIVES - the official name of a position and rank of midwifes in pre-revolutionary Russia.

P.'s preparation. in Russia began in 1757 when at the initiative of P.3. Kondoidi in Moscow and St. Petersburg «babich of school» were organized, since 1764 and since 1771 in St. Petersburg these schools were in Moscow at educational houses (see. Educational house, children's shelter ), which had maternity hospitals. In development of the system of training of P. the Russian scientists-physicians of 18 century took part: I. V. Rutsky, D. S. Samoylovich, G. I. Timchenko and especially I. M. Ambodik-Maksimovich and A. M. Shumlyansky. Since 1797 in St. Petersburg and since 1801 in Moscow of «a babichya of school» were transformed in povivalny in-you. In 19 century network of educational institutions for P.'s preparation. extended, and by the beginning of 20 century there were three povivalny in-that (in St. Petersburg, Moscow and Tiflis), schools at obstetric clinics of high fur boots, at territorial and city-tsakh the majority of the provincial cities, and also at military hospitals. Ying-you and some schools at high fur boots with the biennial term of training would prepare so-called scientific P., and the others (with one-year preparation) — rural P. Since the beginning of 20 century they would begin to be called according to P. first and second category.

In 1907 in Russia there were 54 educational institutions training P., and number P. reached 11 819.

Item., or midwives, since ancient times in Russia called also the women who did not have any education, but delivering. Unlike them P., got an education, were called in 18 century as «jurors», and at the end of 19 — the beginning of 20 century «exclusive». The help at childbirth to women of poor classes in the cities and to vast majority of rural inhabitants was illiterate «midwives». From the second half of 18 century numerous attempts to give them through rural priests, and then through district educated P. were made. elementary knowledge in the field of obstetrics, but owing to full illiteracy of the studying midwives these measures did not bring notable results.

In 1921 Narkomzdrav RSFSR approved «The provision on normal obstetric school» where began to train midwifes, and for P.'s retraining. courses were organized.

See also Midwife .

Bibliography: Artemyev A. P. A short sketch of development of «babichy» matter in Russia and the project of actions to its streamlining, Tiflis, 1894; r at z-d e in V. S. A short sketch of history of obstetrics and gynecology in Russia, SPb., 1906; JI e in and M. F. Istoriya of obstetric aid in the USSR, M., 1950; The Multivolume guide to obstetrics and gynecology, under the editorship of L. S. Persianinov, t. 1, page 54, M., 1961; Palkin B. N. Russian hospital schools of the 18th century, page 177, M., 1959; H and-stovich Ya. A. Sketches from history of the Russian medical institutions XVIII of century, SPb., 1870.

B. N. Palkin.