From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MICROWAVE THERAPY [synonym superhigh-frequency (microwave oven) therapy] — the method of treatment based on use of energy of microwaves — the electromagnetic field of ultrahigh frequency.

Microwaves (synonym: microradio waves, microwave fluctuations) have length from 1 m to 1 mm, the frequency of fluctuations respectively from 300 to 300 000 MHz. In a range of electromagnetic radio waves they take the intermediate place between waves of ultrahigh frequency and infrared beams. It caused the physical properties of microwaves characteristic as for radio waves of ultrahigh frequency (ability to get into biological fabrics), and for infrared beams (reflection, refraction, absorption biol, fabrics).

In the USSR microwaves in the medical purposes are used in two ranges: in centimetric (wavelength 12,6 ate) and decimeter (wavelength of 6,5 dm). According to it medical use of centimetric waves received the name of santimetrovolnovy therapy (SMV-therapy), decimeter waves — detsimetrovolnovy therapy (DMV-therapy).

The mechanism of action of microwaves on an organism consists of two processes: primary (direct influence of microwaves on body tissues) and secondary — the neuroreflex and neurohumoral reactions of a complete organism arising in response to it. Primary influence is shown in a zone of local influence and consists of thermal and non-thermal components. The thermal component is shown by heating of fabrics due to endogenous heat, a cut is formed as a result of the friction arising at the movements of free ions of electrolytes of fabrics and fluctuations of dipole molecules round its pivot-center in the course of their orientation in the direction of power lines of the electromagnetic field and also at the expense of calorification by water molecules at absorption of energy of microwaves by them. Frequency of fluctuations of the field of water molecules matches the frequency of microwave fluctuations therefore the greatest formation of heat happens in the fabrics containing a significant amount of water — in blood, a lymph, muscles, fabrics of parenchymatous bodies.

Non-thermal (ekstratermichesky, ostsillyatorny) the component of the mechanism of action of microwaves on an organism is studied less, than thermal. It consists in various intramolecular physical. - chemical and electrochemical changes and in the restructurings arising under the influence of energy of microwaves in complex biocolloid systems (change of osmotic pressure, surface intention, permeability of cellular membranes, colloidal state of cytoplasm and intercellular liquid, orientation of elements of blood and the polarized branches of proteinaceous macromolecules in the direction of power lines of the electromagnetic field, resonant absorption of energy of fluctuations by separate macromolecules, amino acids, peptides, etc.). These changes at an adjusted dosage of M. of t. improve a functional condition of cells, fabrics and bodies. The ratio of thermal and non-thermal components in operation of microwaves is defined by a dosage of influence — at the low power prevails non-thermal, and at the big power — a thermal component. Reflection from a body surface and less deep (on average on 5 — 6 cm) penetration into fabrics is characteristic of centimetric waves big (to 60%). Besides, these waves are unevenly absorbed by various layers of fabrics that can lead at an inadequate dosage to an overheat of nek-ry sites. Decimeter waves more evenly and deeply (on average on 8 — 9 cm) get into fabrics thereof DMV-therapy begins to be applied in medical practice more widely.

The secondary link of the mechanism of medical action of microwaves consists of direct influence of an absorbed energy on receptors of fabrics, emergence of an initial reflex with chemo - baro-and thermoreceptors in the radiation zone. These impulses through nervous trunks come to c. N of page that provides response of «executive» bodies. Biologically active agents which are formed at influence of microwaves (a histamine, acetylcholine, etc.) cause irritation of receptors out of a zone of influence (a humoral component) and cause the general fiziol, action via the central regulating mechanisms. In to lay down. doses (usually small) microwaves possess antiinflammatory, bacteriostatic, soothing, spasmolytic action. M of t. exerts the regulating, stimulating impact on nervous, endocrine systems, a metabolism. Under the influence of microwaves normalization of a tone of the main and peripheral vessels, activation of processes of microcirculation (acceleration of a blood flow in capillaries, their expansion), increase in oxygenation of blood, regulation of vascular permeability, improvement of oxidation-reduction processes and a trophicity of fabrics is noted. DMV-therapy, activating adaptation and trophic systems — sympathoadrenal (its sympathetic link is preferential) and gipotalamo - pituitary and adrenal, promotes improvement of glucocorticoid function of adrenal glands and suppression of allergic reactions, normalization of a trophicity of a synovial membrane. Use of DMV-therapy at diseases of joints and a backbone at persons of middle and advanced age is followed a nek-eye by improvement of function of automatism of heart and sokratitelny ability of a myocardium.

At treatment of a pseudorheumatism the immunodepressive effect of DMV-therapy is shown. caused by the braking action of magnetic field energy on synthesis of nucleic acids in immunocompetent systems, and normalization of maintenance of serum proteins. SMV-therapy promotes improvement of conductivity of peripheral nerves, normalization of lability of the neuromuscular device, reduction of an atrophy of muscles; has the anesthetizing effect.

Indications (the general for SMV-and DMV-therapy): dystrophic diseases of joints and a backbone (the deforming osteoarthrosis, osteochondrosis, etc.); a pseudorheumatism with the minimum and average degree of activity of process; diseases and injuries of sinews, sheaves, joints (tendovaginitis, tendovaginitis, effects of a hemarthrosis, etc.), diseases of peripheral nerves (neuritis, radiculitis, plexitis, etc.); an acute pneumonia without the phenomena of toxicosis and destruction in lungs, hron, pneumonia (I and II stage), bronchial asthma (atopic and infectious and allergic forms easy and moderately severe currents without the expressed inflammatory process in bronchial tubes); furuncle, mastitis, hydradenitis; acute, subacute and hron, inflammatory diseases of adnexal bosoms of a nose, middle ear, almonds; acute and subacute Dontogenous inflammatory diseases; a peptic ulcer of a stomach and duodenum (out of the period of an aggravation); acute and subacute inflammatory diseases of generative organs.

Additional indications for SMV-therapy are hron, inflammatory diseases of bilious ways and a liver (in a stage of an aggravation and unstable remission), diseases of peripheral vessels of extremities (atherosclerotic occlusion preferential in stages of compensation of blood circulation, an obliterating Thromboangitis in a phase of remission), nek-ry diseases of eyes (irites, uveites, retrobulbar neuritis).

The additional indication for DMV-therapy is atherosclerotic parkinsonism easy and moderately severe currents at prescription of a disease no more than 5 years.

Contraindications: new growths, pregnancy, active tuberculosis, bleedings and bent to them, diseases of blood, cardiovascular system with a circulatory unefficiency of the II—III stage, an idiopathic hypertensia of the II B and the III stages, koronarokardioskleroz, arterial hypotension, the expressed local puffiness of fabrics, existence in tissues of foreign metal bodys (tooth metal prostheses are not a contraindication); heavy joint and joint and visceral forms of a pseudorheumatism with quickly progressing current, suppurative processes in lungs, cirrhosis, a thyrotoxicosis, glaucoma, a cataract.


Fig. 1. Device «Beam-58». Above — the general Witz of the device (1 — the case of the device, 2 — a radiator, 3 — a coaxial cable, 4 — a bracket for fixing of a radiator, 5 — the handle of turning on of the device in network and compensation of tension in network, 6 — the compensator of tension, 7,9 — pilot lamps, 8 — the regulator of a short-time switch, 10 — a wattmeter, 11 — the handle of turning on of the generator and adjustment of power); below - radiators to the device «Beam-58» (and — rectangular, 6 — cylindrical).

Use devices of domestic production «Beam-58» to SMV-therapy (mobile, the maximum power output of 150 W, fig. 1), and also «Beam-2» (portable, the maximum power output of 20 W), working at the frequency of 2375 MHz and the wavelength of 12,6 cm.

Fig. 2. Device «Wave-2»: 1 — the case of the device, 2 — a bracket for fixing of a radiator, 3 — a radiator, 4 — a coaxial cable, 5 — the handle of turning on of the device and compensation of tension, 6 — the handle of turning on of the generator and adjustment of power of radiation, 7 — the regulator of a short-time switch, 8 — a wattmeter.

For DMV-therapy use the device «Wave-2» (mobile, with the maximum power output of 100 W, fig. 2) and the portable device with the maximum power output of 20 W. To devices special radiators, a form are given to-rykh allows to apply them by various technique — remote and contact.

An electric part of all devices consists of the generator, the measuring instrument of power, radiators, the electrical power unit (the autotransformer, the high-voltage rectifier) and systems of automatic equipment (a short-time switch, the medical clock, automatic switches, etc.). The system of the generator connects to radiators a coaxial cable (the hollow tube from the high-isolating fabric, inside a cut is the conductor). The cable comes to an end with the probe, on to-ry the radiator defining the direction of microwaves is located.

A technique

the Patient shall accept a convenient pose (sitting or lying), to-ruyu it can keep without tension during all procedure. Delete all metal objects which are in a zone of influence of microwaves. Treatment by means of the mobile device is carried out by a remote technique. At the same time the radiator of the necessary size and a form (depending on the area and a zone of influence) establish at distance 5 — 7 cm from a naked body part. Treatment by means of the portable device is carried out by a contact technique: the radiator densely, without pressing is imposed directly on a naked body part or entered into the corresponding perigastrium.

At M. of t. influences carry more often out directly on a zone of defeat (e.g., on area of infiltrate, a joint, a genyantrum, etc.). At a number of diseases of influence carry out pe only on patol, the center, but also on area of a projection of the struck body, a reflex and segmented zone. Carefully it is necessary to apply M. of t. in places patol, accumulations of liquid (exudates) and in the field of bone ledges where owing to features of blood circulation assignment of heat is not enough.

Dosing is carried out on the power and duration of influence. On power distinguish a weak dose (lack of caumesthesias or a weak caumesthesia in a zone of influence) that usually corresponds in the portable device to indications of power of current of 1 — 4 W, (depending on diameter of a radiator), and in mobile 20 — 35 W; an average dose (a moderate caumesthesia) that corresponds to 4 — 6 W in portable and 35 — 50 W in mobile devices; thermal doses (the expressed caumesthesia in a zone of influence) that corresponds to 6 — 10 W in portable and 50 — 70 W in mobile devices. Time of impact on one zone 5 — 10 min., the general time of the procedure (at impact on several zones) up to 20 min., carry out them daily (at inflammatory processes) or every other day (at dystrophic processes), on a course of treatment from 5 to 20 procedures, is more often 10 — 12, appoint Repeated courses of treatment at indications not more often than in 1,5 — 2 months. At treatment of elderly people apply preferential small doses of influence, treat with the obligatory accounting of a condition of cardiovascular system. To children treatment is carried out generally by means of the portable device; at purpose of power, duration of the procedure and a course of treatment consider age of the child.

M of t. it is not necessary to combine in one day with thermal (the general heat baths, mud cure, radiation by a lamp sollyuks), and also with the cooling procedures (bathings, air bathtubs, cool and cold souls). It is not recommended to combine M. of t. with ultrasound and others it is high - and ultrahigh-frequency factors (darsonvalization, an inductothermy, electric field of UVCh). At indications it is possible in one day with M. for t. to appoint galvanization, a medicinal electrophoresis, impulse currents of low frequency.

The accident prevention

Operation of the device with a remote arrangement of radiators is possible in certain rooms (room) or in specially equipped cabin from special protective fabric. Stay of medical personnel in a zone of direct radiation of devices is forbidden. At radiation of area of the head of the patient shall put on safety spectacles; the body parts, next to the radiation zone, close. The general safety regulationss during the work with devices for M. of t. — see. Fizioterapevtichessky office .

Bibliography:Grigorieva V. D . Essence of medical action of decimeter waves, Owls. medical, No. 2, page 75, 1973, bibliogr.; Davydova O. B. and Danilov V. I. Treatment of patients with bronchial asthma with an inductothermy and waves of decimeter range, Vopr, kurortol., fizioter., No. 1, page 69, 1977, bibliogr.; Kuleshova 3. C. Microwaves and their medical use, M., 1968, bibliogr.; JI and in e of N-tsev of H. M, and Livenson A. R. Electromedical equipment, M., 1974; Preeman A. S. Electromagnetic fields and wildlife, M., 1968; The Guide to physical therapy and physioprevention of children's diseases, under the editorship of A. N. Obrosov and T. V. Karachevtseva, page 74, M., 1976; Johnson C. C. and. G u at A. W. Nonionizing electromagnetic wave effects of biological materials and systems, Proc. Inst. Electr. Electr. Engineer., v. 60, p. 692, 1972; Physiotherapie, hrsg. v. J. C. Cordes, B., 1979.

M. I. Antropova.