MICROSPORIA (microsporia; synonym: tinea microsporica) — the fungus disease of skin and a hair caused by dermatophytes of the sort Microsporum.
Earlier the disease was described under the name «cutting deprive». The activator of a microsporia Microsporum audouinii is for the first time described in 1843 by D. Gruby, to-ry found on the surface of the affected hair the cover consisting from small which are mosaically located a dispute. After steel also other types of the sort Microsporum causing M.
== the Aetiology and a pathogeny == are known Distinguish 3 groups of activators of the sort Microsporum: anthropophilous Microsporum audouinii (Gruby, 1843) and Microsporum ferrugineum (Ota, 1922), defiant M. only at people; zoophilous, among to-rykh the greatest value has Microsporum canis (Bodin, 1902) — the activator M. at cats and dogs, from to-rykh people can catch; geofilny, e.g. Microsporum gypseum (Bodin, 1928) living in the soil — very seldom cause M. in people and animals. These 3 groups include also Microsporum Vanbreuseghemii, Microsporum nanum, Microsporum cookei, etc., but they seldom meet; the forms M. caused by them very much have also no malokontagiozna epidemiol, values. In M.'s pathogeny such factors as decrease in body resistance (hypovitaminoses, disturbance of immune processes, etc.), injuries of skin, non-compliance with rules of personal hygiene, to a lesser extent climatic factors play a role.
Anthropophilous types of Microsporum differ in high contageousness, cause mass diseases of M. preferential of children in day nursery, kindergartens, schools, and also in a family at direct contact of healthy children with patients or during the use of the general linen, clothes, headdresses, toys, etc. M. caused by Microsporum audouinii is widespread in many countries of Western Europe, in the USA; M, the caused Microsporum ferrugineum, is eurysynusic in China, Japan, India, in the USSR is observed in certain areas.
Infection of people of M. caused by Microsporum canis occurs usually from cats, is more rare than dogs therefore special epidemiol, M. at homeless, vagrant animals matters. Besides, established fact of a carriage of M. of canis healthy cats. People catch at contact with sick animals, and also through the things and objects contaminated by their wool. Children are ill preferential, but it is frequent also adults. Rise in incidence is observed during an autumn season. M, the caused Microsporum canis, is widespread in many countries, in the USSR it is the most frequent
Microsporum gypseum form M. meets in soils of all continents, occasionally causes M. in persons, work to-rykh is connected with the earth (flower growers, vegetable growers). This form M. of a malokontagiozn.
In skin notes changes of inflammatory character; degree of their expressiveness depends on intensity patol. process in the centers of mycosis. In a corneous layer of epidermis in mouths of hair follicles find a mycelium and disputes of dermatophytes.
In blood serum of sick M. is revealed by agglutinins, pretsipitina, fixators, but in small credits. At patients with the infiltrative or suppurative form M. caused by Microsporum canis allergic skin reaction to intradermal introduction of a mikrosporin — a filtrate of culture of a fungus on fluid medium of Saburo is observed. Repeated infection of M. caused by Microsporum canis meets very seldom; at an infection anthropophilous Microsporums postinfectious immunity does not develop.
At M. caused by Microsporum canis, the incubation interval lasts 3 — 7 days then on skin on site implementations of a fungus appear pink inflammatory spots of roundish and oval outlines (tsvetn. fig. 3) usually without the expressed inflammatory phenomena, with a clear boundary, a scaly peeling on a surface; at the same time damage of vellus hair is noted. At defeat of a pilar part of the head arise one, several large round centers are more rare (tsvetn. fig. 4), hair in to-rykh are broken off on 5 — 8 mm over the level of skin and covered with a white cover from a dispute of the activator (tsvetn. fig. 5); around the main centers there are small centers of trikhofitoidny type (see. Trichophytosis ).
At M. damage of hair of a beard, moustaches, eyebrows, and also eyelashes is possible, it is rare — nails.
Occasionally meets suppurative, or infiltrative, the form M., edges can be followed by allergic rashes, increase limf, nodes, temperature increase.
At M. caused by Microsporum ferrugineum, the incubation interval can last 4 — 6 weeks. The centers on skin can take a form of the rings as if entered one in another. At defeat of a pilar part of the head tendency of the centers to merge and formation of the large sites of defeat which are localized more often in fringe regions is noted; in the centers of defeat along with broken off there are also healthy hair.
the Diagnosis establish on the basis a wedge, the data confirmed a lab. a research (detection on hair small, mosaically located a dispute, in scales of skin — a mycelium of a fungus). Crops of the affected hair or scales of skin on Saburo's circle are necessary for identification of species of a fungus (see. Saburo of the environment ) for the purpose of obtaining culture of a fungus (tsvetn. fig. 6). In M.'s diagnosis the luminescent method of a research is important: the affected hair in beams of a fluorescent lamp of Wood give a green luminescence.
Appoint griseofulvin inside in a daily dose of 21 — 22 mg to 1 kg of body weight. Struck depilate an epilating forceps under control of a fluorescent lamp. Locally apply salicylic sulfur-tar ointments, drugs of iodine. Carry periodically out amotio of a corneous layer of epidermis by means of Ariyevich's ointment (for children all components undertake in half concentration). At limited damage of smooth skin apply only topical treatment. Terms prolonged treatments are also defined by check analyses on fungi.
The forecast and Prevention
the Forecast at timely begun treatment favorable.
Prevention consists in carrying out planned surveys of children in child care facilities for the purpose of sick M.' identification, hospitalization of the revealed patients, carrying out disinfection in M.'s centers and establishment of a quarantine (at M. caused by Microsporum ferrugineum on 6 weeks, at M. caused by Microsporum canis to 2 weeks). All members of the family of the patient and persons contacting to it both in a family, and in children's collective are repeatedly inspected using a fluorescent lamp.
An important action in prevention of M. caused by Microsporum canis is the fight against M. at animals (extermination of vagrant homeless animals — carriers of a fungus) which is carried out by forces vt. supervision and SES, and also dignity. promotion among the population of knowledge of ways of distribution of M.
Bibliography: Ariyevich A. M. and Stepanishcheva 3. G. Atlas of fungus diseases of skin, page 56, M., 1951; Kash-kin P. N. and Sh e to l and to about in N. D. Guide to a medical mycology, M., 1978; The Multivolume guide to microbiology, clinic and epidemiology of infectious diseases, under the editorship of H. N. Zhukova-Verezhnikov, t. 10, page 296, M., 1966, bibliogr.; Fejer E. and d river. A medical mycology and fungus diseases, the lane with Wenger., page 370, Budapest, 1966; Sheklakov N. D. and M silt and p M. B. Fungus diseases of the person, page 165, M., 1970; Emmons of Page W. and. lake of Medical mycology, Philadelphia, 1977.
A. M. Ariyevich; V. V. Vladimirov (tsvetn. fig.).