MICROCINEMATOGRAPHY — a method of studying of biological processes by means of the movie equipment and a microscope.
The m allows to record and then to repeatedly reproduce the studied processes, to analyze their separate stages, to give the characteristic of course of these processes in time.
With a movie camera for M. biol, objects fr. researchers E. Marey (1894) and Joly (J. Jolly, 1902), later — scientists practically of all countries for the first time began to use a microscope. In the USSR in the researches V. N. Lebedev, M. A. Peshkov, N. G. Hlopin, V. L. Troitsky, V. D. Timakov, G. Ya. Kagan, V. N. Milyutin, A. T. Kravchenko, M. Ya. Korn, etc. widely used microcinematography.
The researchers applying M. to studying of any phenomena face need of registration of slowly proceeding processes more often (cell fission of animals and plants, reproduction of bacteria, formation of colonies of microorganisms, etc.). The M is applied to the similar purposes tseytrafferny (slowed down). In some cases for studying of quickly proceeding processes (the movement of flagellums or cilia, bystry movements of nek-ry microorganisms) the method of the slow motion (accelerated) shooting is used. At demonstration of the movie with a usual speed (24 shots in 1 sec.) process can be observed and studied respectively at the accelerated or slow rate.
Installation for M. contains a microscope and a movie camera. They can be mounted or independently, or the MKU-5 installation or microscopes of MBI-13 and MBI-17 is a factory way, an example of what. Irrespective of type of a microfilm projector the main requirement to the similar equipment is the reliable fastening of a movie camera and microscope protecting them from vibration. The movie camera connects by means of the cardan drive to the time-lapse motor. The frequency of cycles of operation of the motor providing the necessary interval between shots is regulated by electronic switches of time and blocking devices.
At M. usually use lenses like apochromats or the plan apochromats and projective eyepieces like photoeyepieces or gomaly (see. Mikrofotografiya ). Exposure is determined by the exposure meter, the sensor to-rogo on spectral characteristics shall correspond to the applied film. Use of exponometrichesky devices is usually combined with method of the preliminary assays, i.e. film development exhibited and processed at various modes. In movie cameras exposure is regulated by change of illumination of an object and installation of an angle of disclosure of the obturator.
For successful M. it is necessary to consider biol, properties and features of an object of a research. E.g., during the studying of fabric cultures use special moist chambers, and for creation fiziol, conditions at a research of bacteria — Sh-shaped cameras according to M. A. Peshkov, oil cameras of Fonbryun, etc. (see. Mikrokamera ). As a rule, M. demands maintenance of the optimum temperature necessary for growth and development of live objects. In microscopes of MBI-13 and MBI-17 it is provided with the special camera allowing long preservation of constant temperature from 25 to 42 °; there are also tiny thermostatically controlled chambers, to-rye are located on a subject stage of microscope.
Quantitative information on an object M. (growth rate or movements of an object, change of its form, the area, optical density and so forth) is received by decoding of microfilms. This process is considerably facilitated by use of special cinema devices of decoders, microdensitometers, etc. with the registering and integrating devices.
For increase in picture contrast of the live objects which are characterized by optical homogeneity are widely used phase-contrast microscopy (see), anoptralny, interferential, polarizing and other types of modern microscopy (see. Microscopic methods of a research ).
Essentially new opportunities for M. are opened by use of the cascade electron-optical converters (EOC), to-rye allow to strengthen repeatedly brightness of the image or to transfer it to other spectral region (e.g., from invisible in seen). Connection in cascades of simple single-chamber EOP (the task was for the first time solved in 1952 by M. M. Butslov) possible to reduce the general exposure of an object in thousands of times, i.e. to receive high-quality images at short endurance and the weak, not damaging an object lighting. By means of EOP M. in a dark field, and also luminescent M. of various cells, flyuorokhromirovanny acridic orange or processed by the luminescing serums works well.
Use of EOP with electrostatic or electromagnetic focusing opens M.'s perspectives in an ultraviolet light that allows is intravital to study cellular nucleoproteids, M. in infrared beams and so forth. In a number of modern microscopes also television M.'s possibility is provided in visible, ultraviolet or infrared rays.
The color M.'s technique from the EOP screen on a black-and-white film based on the principle of a consecutive tsvetootdeleniye is developed. This technique is used in an original domestic microfilm projector of MBI-17-2. From the received black-and-white negatives make the direct additive press on a color positive film.
Also installations for holographic M. with resolving power about 3 — 5 microns and the speed of registration of 1 — 50 shots of 1 sec. are described. As a source of lighting during the shooting and reconstruction of the image in holographic M. use the gas lasers working in pulsed operation.
Wide use of a method M. in various fields of biology and medicine allowed to get into much, earlier not studied phenomena and processes: division and formation of colonies at bacteria, growth and cell fission in culture of fabrics, reactions of cells to various influences etc.
See also Cinematography in medicine .
Bibliography: Butslov M. M. Electron-optical converters for studying of sverkhbystry processes, in book: Usp. nauch. photos, under the editorship of M. P. Vanyukov and I. A. Cherny, t. 6, page 76, M. — L., 1959; Cinema methods of a research of microorganisms, sost. B. A. Fichte, etc., Pushchino, 1975, bibliogr Kravchenko A. T., Milyutin V. N. of O. S igudim. Microcinematography in biology, M., 1963; Peshkov M. A. Microcinematography as method of studying of biological processes, Vestn. Academy of Sciences of the USSR, L 8, page 76, 1954; With about x M. E., Buckles R. G. a. Whitlow D. Cineholomicroscopy of small animal microcirculation, Appl. Optics, v. 10, p. 128, 1971; Jeong T. H. a. Snyder H. Holographic microscope system using a triangular interferometer, ibid., v. 12, p. 146, 1973.
I. E. Hesinonim