From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MICROBIOLOGY (Greek mikros small + biology) — science about microscopic beings, microorganisms, or microbes, their structure and life activity, value in life of the nature, in pathology of the person, animals and plants, their systematics, variability, heredity and ecology.

Microorganisms on the basis morfol, and fiziol, properties are divided into big groups, concern to them bacteria (see), spirochetes (see), actinomycetes (see) and related organisms, rickettsiae (see) and chlamydias (see), mycoplasmas (see. Mycoplasmataceae ), fungi (see. Fungi parasitic ), protozoa (see) and viruses (see), the biological structures which do not have the cellular organization. All microorganisms are objects of studying of separate sections M., to-rye during its historical development were allocated in independent disciplines — bacteriology, virology (see), mycology (see), protozoology (see). The m as the section of biology combines these disciplines in uniform science about biology of microorganisms though such association creating integral idea of M. remained generally in courses M. Objects of studying actually M. are bacteria, spirochetes, actinomycetes and related organisms, rickettsiae, chlamydias, mycoplasmas.

M as science arose in the second half of 19 century and since the emergence it is closely connected with practical activities of the person. The saved-up huge actual material about biology of microorganisms, the purposes and problems of a practical orientation of scientific research in M. defined its differentiation on the separate directions. The general M., technical (industrial) M., agricultural M., veterinary M., medical M., sanitary M., radiation

M. M. were so created as a part of biology uses biol, methods of a research (see. Biology ), and also the methods applied only in M. as independent science. The m uses such methods as a method of release of pure growths, methods of their studying morfol, and cultural properties, biochemical, and biosynthetic activity, studying of an antigenic structure, pathogenicity and virulence and other properties. The m widely uses methods of genetics of microorganisms, a bacteriophagia, various microscopic techniques (a svetlopolny and dark field method, fazovokontrastny, luminescent, electronic, etc.), and also methods biochemistry (see), molecular biology (see), biophysics (see) and other sciences depending on tasks and research objectives.

The general M. studies situation and a role of microorganisms in the nature, a systematics of microorganisms, their morphology and the thin structural organization, biochemistry and physiology of microorganisms — chemical structure, constructive and power metabolism, fermental systems, growth and reproduction, cultivation. The important section of the general M. is the genetics of microorganisms, edges are studied as the general patterns of heredity and variability of microorganisms, and applied questions various mikrobiol. specialties. The general M. studies questions of relationship of microorganisms under natural conditions dwellings, environmental issues, the general questions mikrobiol, synthesis of antibiotics and other biologically active agents. The general M. studies also a number of special questions of geomicrobiology, space M. and other problems.

The main sections of the general M. join in a course of all mikrobiol, specialties since are a basis for knowledge of private and applied questions M.

The industrial (industrial) microbiology studies the general and private questions mikrobiol, synthesis biologically active substances: protein, amino acids, nucleinic to - t, vitamins, to - t, alcohols, steroids, hormones, etc., and also questions of technology of their production. The important place in technical M. is taken by use of microorganisms in the food industry, in production of dairy products, wines, bread, etc., in production of fodder yeast, and also M.'s studying of foodstuff. Technical M. studies questions of biodegradation of engineering materials and ways of their protection from action of microorganisms.

The veterinary microbiology studies causative agents of infectious diseases of animals, develops a lab. diagnosis inf. diseases and ways of their prevention. Important problem of veterinary M. is studying and improvement diagnostic, to lay down. and preventive drugs and implementation of the actions directed to fight against diseases of animals, W. h the general with diseases of the person.

The medical microbiology studies microorganisms, pathogenic and opportunistic for the person. The general medical M. studies the general M.'s questions in the annex to pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms and mechanisms of their disease-producing action, and also the defense reactions of an organism arising in response to action of the microorganisms capable to cause diseases. Private medical M. studies various systematic groups of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, develops methods a lab. diagnoses, specific prevention inf. diseases and other questions.

One of the most important sections of medical M. is studying biol, and genetic aspects virulence (see) and general patterns of development inf. processes. The important section of medical M. which is closely connected with problems of an infection and immunity is studying of normal microflora of the person, its role it is normal also of pathology.

Medical M.'s problems include studying of an antigenic structure of microorganisms, questions of immunochemistry, toxin production, a structure of toxins and mechanisms of their action. The most important section of medical M. is development preventive, diagnostic and to lay down. specific drugs, such, as vaccines (see), diagnostic and medical serums (see), diagnosticums (see), etc.

The big independent section of medical M. is the doctrine about antibiotics (see), antibiotiko-and chemotherapy inf. diseases, mechanisms of effect of chemotherapeutic drugs and studying of the nature of resistance of microorganisms to them.

Knowledge of biology of activators inf. diseases, patterns of immunity, and also pathogeny inf. diseases is a basis mikrobiol. identifications of the activator and indication of pathogenic microorganisms in the environment (see. Identification of microbes ). The large applied section of medical M. is clinical M. (see. Microbiology clinical ).

Main stages of development of microbiology. M.'s formation as sciences was long and in many respects depended on development of biology, physics, chemistry and achievements of the equipment. The mankind long before opening of microorganisms used them in the purposes at bread baking, cheese making, winemaking, etc., without knowing about the processes happening at the same time. Infectious diseases claimed thousands of the lives, and their origin drew attention of doctors and thinkers long ago. In 1546 the Italian doctor and the writer J. Frakastoro published the fundamental work «About a Contagion, Contagious Diseases and Treatment», in Krom stated the idea about wildlife of causative agents of infectious diseases. However knowledge of the nature of activators depended on creation of optical devices, the first of to-rykh were created in 17 century by the Dutch scientist A. Levenguk. Having reached big perfection in grinding of glasses, A. Levenguk could create the first short-focus lenses giving increase by 250 — 300 times. Use of lenses allowed it to receive the first authentic data on the microorganisms seen in various objects (a rain water, a dental plaque, excrements, etc.); they were described by it in letters London royal about-vu. A. Levenguk described the «live small animals» found by it and made sketches, judging by the Crimea, it is possible to consider that he found the main morfol, forms of bacteria.

A. Levenguk is considered the pioneer of microorganisms, the true value to-rykh was opened only in 19 century.

The further stage of development of M. is connected with names of the scientists who made the first attempts of classification of microorganisms. Müller (O. F. Muller) who published the first works on classification of microorganisms in 1773 and 1786 (infusorians in its terminology) was the first of them. In 1838 and 1840 Erenberg (Page G. Ehrenberg) allocated such microorganisms as spirochete and a sperilla. The positive role was played by F. Kohn's works, to-ry carried microorganisms to plants and allocated the class Schizophyceae combining them with the lowest seaweed. Not gels (Page W. Naegeli, 1857) separated bacteria from the lowest seaweed and included them in the class Schizomycetes (mushrooms-drobyanok). These names long remained in classification of microorganisms. In 1974 microbes, excepting fungi, protozoa and viruses, were allocated in a kingdom of Procaryotae and presented in determinant of bacteria of Bergey's Manual of Determinative Bacteriology. The considerable role in formation of the doctrine about microorganisms was played by F. Kohn's works about stability of properties of bacteria and the ideas of a monomorphism proved by it contrary to works of Neghelli about extreme variability of properties of microorganisms (polymorphism).

In the second half of 19 century the great fr. scientist L. Pasteur laid M.'s foundation as sciences and created its many future directions. Being by profession a chemist, it brought experimental approach in studying of microorganisms and clarification of their role. Having begun researches with studying of the nature of fermentations at «diseases» of wine, because of to-rykh fr. the winemaking incurred losses, he established (1857) that at each of forms of fermentation (butyrate, acetic, spirit, etc.) the specific microbe is the reason. Thus, the reason of fermentation and specificity of microorganisms was established that, in turn, allowed to solve also an applied problem of prevention of development of diseases of wine and beer. (see. Pasteurization ).

During the studying of the nature of fermentations L. Pasteur opened the phenomenon of an anaerobiosis which played afterwards a huge role during the studying of processes of breath and energy balance. During this period L. Pasteur showed that processes of rotting are also caused by specific microorganisms.

Already these opening of L. Pasteur promoted development of medicine. The English surgeon J. Lister, based on L. Pasteur's opening in the field of fermentation and rotting, in 1867 entered into surgery to an antiseptic agent (see), edges further it was added asepsis (see). Introduction of these methods to surgery sharply lowered complications and mortality at surgical interventions and promoted progress of surgery.

Studying of processes of fermentations and specificity of their activators was a basis for clarification of a role of microorganisms at inf. diseases. Early studies were conducted with a disease of silkworms (pebriny). L. Pasteur established ways of distribution of a pebrina and developed methods of prevention of diseases. Having applied an experimental method, L. Pasteur established a role of microorganisms at a malignant anthrax and chicken cholera, having proved that them inf. nature.

L. Pasteur's researches with the causative agent of chicken cholera led to the new opening which laid the foundation for prevention inf. diseases. In 1880 L. Pasteur opened a possibility of attenuation of the activator (see. Attenuation ), what was a basis for preparation of vaccines. The greatest achievement of this principle was receiving by L. Pasteur in 1885 of an antirabic vaccine.

In M.'s development and its formation as sciences big merits belong to R. Koch, to-ry developed a number of methods in M. It entered use of dense mediums (gelatin, etc.) that allowed to develop a method of receiving pure growths (see. Bacterial culture ). Big merits belong to R. Koch in the field of studying of an etiology nek-ry inf. diseases (tuberculosis, cholera, malignant anthrax). R. Koch for studying of morphology of bacteria entered a method of coloring of bacterial cultures; various methods of coloring of microorganisms developed and improved by many other researchers, napr, Gram's method, Neicer's method, Tsil's method — Nelsena, etc., remained a basis for studying of morphology of bacteria before use of a submicroscopy. Many of them still did not lose the practical value.

L. Pasteur and R. Koch's classical works laid the foundation of development of methods of studying of bacteria, created the base mikrobiol, an era in medicine. The methods offered by them and their pupils led to rapid development of M., to opening of activators of many inf. diseases. For a short span M. made great progress in opening of pathogenic microorganisms, development of methods mikrobiol, diagnoses, specific prevention and therapy. Introduction mikrobiol, methods of a research allowed to reveal sources inf. diseases, ways and ways of their transfer that created a basis for emergence of independent science epidemiology (see).

The medical direction in M. during the early period of its development was the basic. Along with studying of an etiology inf. diseases the doctrine about immunity begins to develop (see. Immunity ), a cut afterwards it was allocated in independent science — immunology. The scientific foundation of immunology was laid by P. Ehrlich and I. I. Mechnikov's works. In 1890 agglutinins, then other types of antibodies were discovered that formed a basis for development and introduction to practice serol, diagnostic methods. Opening in 1888 diphtheritic [to E. R and A. Yersin], then tetanic toxins (S. Kitasato) laid the foundation of the doctrine about an infection and pathogenic properties of bacteria. After discovery of toxins the anti-toxic nature of immunity at diphtheria and tetanus was established (E. Bering and S. Kitasato, the 1890th) that led to creation serotherapy (see) and seroimmunities (see).

In 1923 the fr. scientist G. Ramone opened the principle of neutralization of toxins and their transformation in anatoxins (see) that gave the chance of carrying out active immunization against toxicogenic infections. Afterwards big research work on receiving anatoxins for the production purposes, to studying of their efficiency was carried out by the Soviet microbiologists (P.F. Zdrodovsky, K. T. Halyapina, I. I. Rogozin, G. V. Vygodchikov, etc.).

In 1892 the Russian botanist D. I. Ivanovsky opened new group of microbes — viruses, than laid the foundation for development virology (see). Opening in 1875

by F. A. Lesh of a dysenteric amoeba, in 1880 the fr. doctor A. Laveran of a malarial plasmodium and in 1898 P. F. Bohr the activator of a skin leushmaniosis the foundation was laid for new science of a protozoology.

The schoolgirl I. I. Mechnikova P. V. Tsiklinskaya, the first Russian female microbiologist, the researches of normal microflora brought the original direction in medical M. developed afterwards in science gnotobiologiya (see).

The outstanding scientist S. N. Vinogradsky, one of M. founders, opening of new group of bacteria of hemotrof and the phenomena of chemosynthesis laid the foundation for development agricultural and the general M. Classical works of S. N. Vinogradsky proved a huge role of microorganisms in circulation of elements in the nature (nitrogen, carbon, sulfur, etc.).

At the beginning of 20 century it is mute. the scientist P. Ehrlich based the doctrine about chemotherapy inf. diseases. He offered the principle of selection of medicinal chemotherapeutic drugs, proceeding from idea of their selective effect, a parazitotropnost. P. Ehrlich synthesized several first chemotherapeutic drugs (salvarsan, neosalvarsan). The direction begun by P. Ehrlich led to opening in the 30th of sulfanamide drugs, and finally researches on chemotherapy crowned opening of antibiotics.

In the 40th intensive studying of genetics of bacteria began, and for the short period great success was achieved (see. Bacteria, genetics of bacteria ). The large number of researches was devoted to studying of lytic and temperate backteriophages and the phenomenon of a lysogeny [M. Delbryuk, A. Lvov, F. Jacob, E. L. Wollman]. Development of genetics of bacteria and bacteriophages promoted emergence of molecular biology.

History of development of domestic M. is closely connected with medical practice, the greatest success was achieved in days of the Soviet power. At once after Great October socialist revolution the main directions in medical M. were devoted to development of the basic and applied researches connected with the preventive direction of the Soviet medicine.

Great success is achieved by the Soviet microbiologists during the development and receiving vaccines against plague (N. I. Zhukov-Verezhnikov, M. P. Pokrovsk, E. I. Korobkova), tularemias (N. A. Gaysky, B. I, Elbert, etc.), malignant anthrax (H. N. Ginsburg), brucellosis (P.F. Zdrodovsky, P. A. Vershilova). A lot of work was carried out on studying of harmlessness and broad introduction to practical work of vaccine BTsZh (A. I. Togunova, B. Ya. Elbert, etc.). The practical health care received a large number of vaccines for specific prevention of many diseases, diagnostic drugs, to lay down. and preventive serums, antibiotics.

Widely developed researches in the field of specific prevention played a big role in decrease inf. diseases and elimination nek-ry of them in the territory of the Soviet Union.

The current state of microbiology

In modern M. is available a large number of the fundamental and applied problems important both for biology, and for the solution of special problems of science, practice and the national economy. As a result of scientific and technical progress and the increasing penetration into different mikrobiol, specialties of methods of the general M., attraction of methods of a research of other sciences (genetics, molecular biology, biochemistry, biophysics, etc.) in modern M.'s development there was a high-quality growth.

One of the main directions M., progress in Krom will allow to solve many applied problems, the biology and genetics of different systematic groups of microorganisms is. In this area from 60th of 20 century huge successes are achieved. Urgent and important for the solution of many questions M. are researches of ultrastructure of microorganisms in combination with studying of functional activity of structures and organellas of cells, and also researches in the field of biochemistry and physiology of microorganisms — constructive and energy balance, growth and cell fission and genetic regulation of these processes, biochemical and genetic mechanisms of biosynthesis and a differentiation of structural components of microorganisms. Value of studying of growth and development of microbic population and patterns of their industrial cultivation, studying of secondary metabolism, applied genetics of microorganisms increased.

In recent years broad development was gained by studying of extra chromosomal factors of heredity (see. Plasmids ). With plasmids as the most convenient objects the first experiments were conducted on genetic engineering (see). Studying of plasmids has a number of fundamental and applied aspects of a research. It is possible to refer studying of the molecular organization of plasmids, their genetics, a role in functional activity of microorganisms to them, in particular in biosynthetic activity and secondary metabolism. The problem of an origin of plasmids and their evolution has obshchebiol. value. In the medical relation the most important is studying of plasmids of multiple medicinal resistance, patterns of their distribution among bacteria under the selection and non-selective conditions, and also the plasmids defining pathogenic properties of bacteria, antigens of a cell.

In medical M. important problems, to-rye cannot be studied without deep understanding of biology and genetics of microorganisms, problems of an infection, pathogenicity and virulence are. In the solution of these questions M. achieved considerable success, however studying of properties of the pathogenic microorganisms giving them pathogenicity, geneticists, virulence, a structure of toxins and mechanisms of their action, stages of interaction of bacteria with sensitive fabrics and cells remains the important direction of researches; the problem of a persistention of activators and a bacteriocarrier is important.

One of the main problems of medical M. remains a problem of receiving new preventive and diagnostic drugs in this connection studying of an antigenic structure of microorganisms, studying of antigens, their chemical structures, localization and genetic regulation is important. All these questions are well studied only at nek-ry types of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms. Receiving new preventive drugs, in particular live vaccines, requires studying of various methods of attenuation (easing of virulence), including use of methods of genetic engineering.

Along with it the tendency of more and more broad and deeper studying and receiving chemical and molecular vaccines is noted. Modern M. reached such level that empirical approach to designing of vaccines and vaccinal strains was replaced evidence-based, following from all complex of knowledge of microbiology and genetics of pathogenic microorganisms. Studying of an immunogenicity of microorganisms and their separate components is closely connected with immunochemistry (see) and immunology (see).

There is a further studying of properties of pathogenic and opportunistic microorganisms, studying biol, and genetic patterns of change of activators at a number of infectious diseases, development of new methods of identification of microorganisms, including the accelerated methods.

The problem normal is important microflorae of the person (see), its role it is normal also of pathology. In this regard the problem of opportunistic microorganisms, acquisitions of medicinal resistance and developing of intrahospital infections by them was of particular importance.

Researches in the field of a bacteriophagia continue to develop (see. Bacteriophage ). Considerably the possibility of use of phages for identification of bacteria extended. Continuation of researches in this direction is important and necessary. And for the solution of a number of applied tasks continuation of researches in the area is also important for studying of many fundamental questions of biology of microorganisms phage conversion (see). The problem of use of a phage for treatment, especially against the background of the increased number of antibiotikorezistentny bacteria, and for prevention nek-ry inf did not lose the relevance. diseases.

A big and important problem of modern M. is the problem of a systematics and the nomenclature of microorganisms.

Research in the USSR in the area M. is carried out to scientific research institute and at departments M. of high fur boots, medical, veterinary, agricultural and nek-ry other in-comrades.

The early scientific research in Russia was conducted in Kharkiv bacteriological in-those (it is founded in 1887), Ying-those experimental medicine in St. Petersburg (it is founded in 1890), Moscow bacteriological in-those (it is founded in 1895), bacterial. in-ta in Odessa, Tomsk, Kazan, etc. After Great October socialist revolution the powerful network research, production and practical mikrobiol was created. institutions. The largest of them are: Ying t of microbiology of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Ying t of epidemiology and microbiology of

N. F. Gamalei of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Ying t of biochemistry and physiology of microorganisms of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Ying t of vaccines and serums of I. I. Mechnikov of M3 of the USSR, Ying t of standardization and control of medical biological supplies of L. A. Tarasevich, the Central scientific research institute of epidemiology M3 of the USSR, Ying t of virology and microbiology of AN of USSR, Belarusian in-t of epidemiology and microbiology, Moscow and Gorky in-you epidemiology and microbiology of M3 of RSFSR. Researches on M. are conducted also in Ying-those infectious diseases of M3 of USSR, Ying-those experimental medicine of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, in-ta of VASHNIL, etc. Researches on especially dangerous infections are conducted in antiplague in-ta of M3 of the USSR.

The first in in-t according to M. was organized in Paris in 1888 (Pasterovsky by in-t) and called in honor of L. Pasteur; then similar in-you were created in Berlin, London, etc. Researches on M. are conducted in high fur boots, colleges, medical schools at high fur boots, and also in in-ta and the centers, the largest of to-rykh are: Institut Pasteur (Paris); National Institute for Medical Research (London); National Institute of Health (Tokyo); National Institute of Health (Bethesda, USA); National Institute of Allergy and Infections Diseases (Bethesda, USA); Carnegi Institution (Washington, USA); Center for Disease Control (Atlanta, USA); State Serum Institute (Helsinki); Institute of Fundamental Research (Bombay, India) N other.

In system of the higher medical education M.'s teaching ranks high and is carried out by departments M. on 2 — 3 courses, at the same time the bacteriology, virology, immunology, bases of a mycology and a protozoology according to the program approved by M3 of the USSR is taught. Teaching is divided into the general M. and private medical M. and the lab consists of a lecture course and practical. occupations. M. specialists are trained in in-ta of improvement of doctors and in a postgraduate study.

Results of scientific research on M. are published in many magazines, the main of * them: «Reports of Academy of Sciences of the USSR» (USSR), «Microbiology» (USSR), «Magazine of microbiology, epidemiology and immunobiology» (USSR), «Bulletin of experimental biology and medicine» (USSR), «Antibiotics» (USSR), «Applied biochemistry and microbiology» (USSR), «Journal of General Microbiology» (Great Britain), «Journal of Medical Microbiology» (Great Britain), «Acta pathologica et microbiologica Scandinavian, Seria B. Microbiology» (Denmark), «Acta microbiologica» (Poland), «Journal of Bacteriology» (USA), «International Journal of Systematic Bacteriology» (USA), «Infection and Immunity» (USA), «Journal of Infection Diseases» (USA), «Microbiology» (Germany), «Infektion» (Germany), «Current topics in Microbiology and Immunology» (Germany), «Annales de Microbiologie» (France), «Magazine of hygiene, epidemiology, microbiology and immunology», «Folia microbiologica» (Czechoslovakia), «Journal of General and Applied Microbiology» (Japan), «Zentralblatt fur Bacteriologie, Parasitenkunde Infektionskrankheiten und Hygiene, Ab-teilung 2» (GDR), «Canadian Journal of Microbiology» (Canada), «Antonie van Leeuwenhoek Journal of Microbiology and Serology» (Netherlands).

Medical microbiologists are combined in All-Union in microbiologists, epidemiologists and parasitologists by it, I. I. Mechnikova. Such name about-in received according to the decision of the XVI congress of microbiologists and epidemiologists which took place in 1977 in Ulyanovsk. Microbiologists of others mikrobiol, specialties combines All-Union in microbiologists. Both about-va are included into the International union microbiological about-in (IAMS).

In the history of medical M. in the USSR the important role belonged to congresses of microbiologists, epidemiologists and infectiologists, on to-rykh topical issues of microbiology, epidemiology and inf were discussed. pathologies.

In 1972 specialists on inf. were allocated to diseases in independent about-in.

The sanitary microbiology studies life activity of microorganisms in the environment, their influence on the natural processes proceeding in this environment and also a possibility of beneficial or their negative effect on the environment and health of the person.

Sanitary M. is close to medical and veterinary M. as it studies the same objects, however differs in approach to their studying. The leading methods of a research of sanitary M. is definition of a microbic obsemenennost, sanitary and indicative and pathogenic microorganisms in objects of the environment.

The main objectives of sanitary M. are: 1) development and improvement mikrobiol, and virusol, methods of researches of objects of the environment — water, air, the soil, foodstuff, objects of use etc.; 2) studying of polluters of the environment the various microflora constituting danger to the person or making noticeable changes to objects of the environment; 3) studying of life activity of microflora in the environment, especially in the conditions of its chemical and biol, pollution; 4) development of standards for a gigabyte. estimates of objects of the environment, including foodstuff, on mikrobiol, to indicators; 5) development of actions for improvement of objects of the environment and control of efficiency of these actions, including control of quality of water supply, work of the enterprises of the food industry and public catering, efficiency of disinfecting of drain waters, garbage etc.

Sanitary M. is among young sciences. Its development is closely connected with requirements human about-va. Sanitary M.'s formation happened first of all in our country since 30th and is closely connected with A. A. Miller, I. E. Minkevich, G. N. Chistovich, G. P names. Guelder-roses, etc., the M which published the first-ever manuals and a number of large monographs on sanitary.

Sanitary M.'s laboratories are created as a part of a number of scientific research institute. The big contribution to sanitary M.'s development is made by the relevant laboratories Ying-that the general and utility hygiene of A. N. Sysin the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, the Moscow scientific research institute of hygiene of F. F. Erismana of M3 of RSFSR, Ying-that food of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, Kiev scientific research institute of the general and utility hygiene of

A. N. Marzeev M3 of USSR, Kuibyshev scientific research institute of hygiene and occupational diseases, Moldavian in-that hygiene and epidemiology, departments of microbiology Leningrad sanitary and hygienic medical in-that and number of departments of other medical in-comrades.

It is created and actively the network of sanitary and microbiological laboratories at SES exercising control over the implementation of recommendations and standards in the field of preventive service of the country functions.

Separate aspects of the questions relating to sanitary M.'s sphere are taught as a part of a number of disciplines, such as microbiology, utility hygiene and hygiene of food, etc.

In 1963 at the initiative of the academician of AMN G. I. Sidorenko the USSR's first section a dignity was organized. microbiologists at the Moscow city department All-Union scientific about-va hygienists and health officers. In 1973 sanitary M.'s section at All-Union problem commission «Scientific bases of hygiene of the environment», and in 1979 — sanitary M.'s section at All-Union problem commission «Scientific bases of food» is created.

To the USSR it is carried out 7 all-Union and a number of republican conferences on sanitary by M. Articles on the questions entering competence of sanitary microbiology are regularly published in magazines «Hygiene and Sanitation», «Questions of Food», «Magazine of Microbiology, Epidemiology and Immunobiology» and some other periodic medical editions.

Radiation microbiology — the section of microbiology studying influence of ionizing radiation on microorganisms. The radiation microbiology covers the following circle of questions: mechanism of action ionizing radiation (see) on microorganisms, morfol, and biochemical, changes of microorganisms at radiation, genetic changes (see. Radiogenetics ), radio sensitivity of microorganisms, bactericidal actions of radiation (see. Bacterial action ), action of radiation on antigenic and immunogene properties of microorganisms, protection of microorganisms against impact of ionizing radiation.

Bacteria were one of the first objects, on to-rykh action of ionizing radiation on a live organism was studied. In 1896 there was the first message on influence of x-ray emission on causative agents of a typhoid, and in 1901 the bactericidal effect of x-ray emission was described. From now on studying of action of ionizing radiation on microorganisms began. The radiation microbiology pays much attention to questions of sensitivity of microorganisms to ionizing radiation. Microorganisms differ in low radio sensitivity in comparison with animals and plants. Average lethal doses for microorganisms exceed those for animals on 1 — 3 order, and the bactericidal effect for the majority of bacteria is reached only at doses about 1 — 2 mrad. Among microorganisms are most sensitive to ionizing radiation of a bacterium, then fungi, disputes of bacteria, viruses follow. Genotypic and others biol, features of microorganisms define various sensitivity them to ionizing radiation. So, e.g., radio sensitivity of bacteria considerably varies in one type, a strain and population of bacterial cells. Gram-positive bacteria are less sensitive to radiation, than gram-negative. Radio sensitivity varies a dispute of bacteria to a lesser extent, than radio sensitivity of the bacteria which are not forming a dispute. The bactericidal effect of ionizing radiation at impact on disputes is shown at radiation in doses 1,5 — 2,5 mrad. However among not spore-forming types bacteria, much more radiation-resistant, than disputes, e.g. Streptococcus t'aecium A are found 2 1. The dried-up culture of these bacteria completely was not killed in a dose 4,5 mrad [Christensen (E. A. with Christensen), 1973]. The bacteria of the sort Pseudomonas allocated from the atomic reactor in laboratory in Los Alamos (USA) can be an example of high radiation resistance. Assume that high radiation resistance of the allocated bacteria was either a consequence of mutagen action of radiation, or radiation was a factor of selection of the most radio resistant individuals of population [Thornley, Ingram, Barnes (M. of J. Thornley, M. of Ingram, E. M of Barns), 1960].

Increase in radiation resistance of different types of microorganisms can be reached at continuous impact of ionizing radiation in rather small doses, napr, at the parameciums allocated from radioactive reservoirs or at the bacteria allocated from sources of radioactive mineral waters at representatives, highly sensitive to radiation, this. Enterobacteriaceae at repeated radiation in subbactericidal doses.

The bacterial cell is heterogeneous on the radio sensitivity. The nuclear device is more sensitive to ionizing radiation, than cytoplasm or a cellular cover, processes of phosphorylation are more sensitive, than all process of breath of a cell etc. Radio sensitivity of microorganisms is influenced by conditions of radiation, napr, dosage rate of radiation, temperature in a radiation time and after it, existence of radioprotectors, radiation of microorganisms in the wet environment or in the dried-up look, concentration and a growth phase of microorganisms, composition of nutrient medium, etc.

Broad development of radiation M. in the USSR began in the 20th G. A. Nadson and G. S. Filippov's works on action of ionizing radiation on fungi and bacteria (G. A. Nadson, 1920, 1935; G. A. Nadson, G. S. Filippov, 1925). During this period many facts about the changes arising in a cell under the influence of the ultra-violet and ionizing radiations were saved up. Data on mutagen and bactericidal action of radiations were the most important. G. A. Nadson and G. S. Filippov's works about mutagen effect of ionizing radiation laid the foundation for the doctrine about radiogenetics of microorganisms, a cut entered as a part radiogenetics and the general genetics of microorganisms.

Ionizing radiation depending on a dose can have bactericidal effect, mutagen effect and change properties of microorganisms. Changes of properties can be resistant and remain in succeeding generations (hereditary changes) or disappearing at cultivation of the irradiated microorganisms.

The functional and morphological changes of microorganisms arising under the influence of UF-and ionizing radiation are diverse. Function of cell fission is suppressed that with the continuing growth of cells leads to formation of the extended threadlike forms, and at radiation of cocci — to formation of long chains. The sizes of cells and without suppression of function of division change. These changes lead to delay of growth of colonies, change of their form and size, formation of the painted colonies of a folded form or mucous type. At action on bacteria and amoebas of radiation cause degenerative changes in a kernel: its hypertrophy, vacuolation, swelling, pycnosis and fragmentoz kernels. Changes of the nuclear device in most cases lead of cells to death. If the cell continues to exist, then its many properties significantly change. E.g., tinktorialny properties change, ability to chromogenesis is gained), ability to split carbohydrates changes, sensitivity to antibiotics, an antigenic structure of cells changes that influences ability to be agglutinated by specific antiserums. Under the influence of UF-and ionizing radiation there can be mutational and not connected with mutations changes of virulence of microorganisms and their ability to form toxins. In both cases of change lead to decrease in virulence and ability to toxin production.

It is established that changes of properties and ability of a cell to resist to high doses of radiation — radiation resistance — are considerably connected with beam damages of DNA. Ability of a bacterial cell to reparirovat beam damages of DNA that is one of the major factors defining radiation resistance of bacteria is found. Ability to a reparation of beam damages at bacteria is connected with features of the genetic device of a cell and therefore high radiation resistance is the sign fixed hereditarily. However conditions of radiation and other factors can significantly change degree biol, actions of radiation to bacteria and to raise or lower the dose of radiation necessary for achievement of bactericidal effect.

The bactericidal effect of ionizing radiation is widely used in the USSR and abroad for sterilization in medicine and the medical industry (see. Sterilization ).

Radiation M.'s formation as independent section M. is connected with M. N. Meysel, V. L. Troitsky, A. I. Alikhanyan, V. L. Korogodin's names, 3. G. Pershinoy, A. G. Skavronskoy, etc. Abroad this field of knowledge is obliged to S. Igali's works in VNR, D. Li and P. Howard-Flanders in the USA, Uitkin and Alper (E. Witkin, T. Alper) in England, Christensen (E.A. Christensen) in Denmark. Works on radiation M. gained development in Ying-those microbiology and in Ying-those biophysics of Academy of Sciences of the USSR, Ying-those atomic energy of I. V. Kurchatov, in Ying-those epidemiology and microbiology of the USSR Academy of Medical Sciences.

Works on radiation M. are published in magazines «Radiobiologiya», «Mikrobiologiya», «Biofizika», «Zhurnal mikrobiologii, epidemiologii i immunobiologii», «Radiationreserch», «J. Bakteriology», «Molecular General Geneticks», etc.

Programs of the international congresses and congresses of microbiologists, radio biologists, geneticists include materials and on radiation M. Ob-va of microbiologists and biochemists in the USSR the separate meetings radiation devote to questions M.

Bibliography: Avakyan A. A., Katz L. N. and Pavlova I. B. The atlas of anatomy of bacteria, pathogenic for the person and animals, M., 1972, bibliogr.; The B and d and with and - is zealous G. A., etc. Fundamentals of sanitary virology, M., 1977, bibliogr.; And-z and e in A. I. Molecular mechanisms of a reparation of single-stranded ruptures of DNA induced at - radiation, in book: Biophysics of complex systems and radiation disturbances, under the editorship of E. M. Franca, page 150, M., 1977; Gershanovich V. N. Biochemical and genetic bases of transfer of hydrocarbons in a bacterial cell, M., 1973, bibliogr.; Kalakuts-s to and y L. V. and And r e H. C. Development of actinomycetes, M., 19 77, bibliogr.; To a shouting about t I am e in A. I. Mechanisms of self-control of a bacterial cell, M., 1973, bibliogr.; To at d l and y D. G. Vnekhromo-somnye factors of heredity of bacteria and their value in infectious pathology, M., 1977, bibliogr.; Methods of a sanitary and microbiological research of objects of the environment, under the editorship of G. I. Sidorenko, M., 1978; The Multivolume guide to microbiology, clinic and epidemiology of infectious diseases, under the editorship of H. N. Zhukova-Verezhnikov, t. 1 — 10, M., 1962 — 1968; Molecular microbiology, the lane with English, under the editorship of B. N. Ilyashenko, M., 1977; Molecular bases of action of antibiotics, the lane with English, under the editorship of G. F. Gauz, M., 1975; Petrovsky V. G. Problema of virulence of bacteria, L., 1967, bibliogr.; Petrovsky V. G. and Marko O. P. Mikroflora of the person are normal also of pathology, M., 1976; Peshkov M. A. Comparative cytology of blue-green seaweed, bacteria, actinomycetes, M., 1966; Pyatkink. And Curve shein Yu. S. Mikrobiologiya, M., 1980; Rose E. Chemical microbiology, the lane with English, M., 1971; Sanitary microbiology, under the editorship of G. P. Guelder-rose and G. N. Chistovich, M., 1969; T e of c of V. I. Sanitary microbiology, L., 1958, bibliogr.; Tumanyan M. A. and Kau-shansky D. A. Radiation sterilization, M., 1974; Schlegel G. The general microbiology, the lane with it., M., 1972; Bergey’s manual of determinative bacteriology, ed. by R. E. Buchanan a. N. E. Gibbons, Baltimore, 1975; Microbiology — 1974, ed. by D. Schlessinger, Washington, 1974, bibliogr.; Microbiology — 1975, ed. by D. Schlessinger, Washington, 1975, bibliogr.; Schlegel H. G. Allgemeine Mikrobiologie, Stuttgart, 1976.

Periodicals — Antibiotics, M., since 1956; Biology, the Abstract magazine, century 2 — Virology, Microbiology, M., since 1954; The Magazine of hygiene, epidemiology, microbiology and immunology, Prague, since 1957; The Magazine of microbiology, epidemiology and immunology (1924 — 1929 — the Magazine of microbiology, pathology and infectious diseases, 1930 — 1934 — the Magazine of microbiology and immunobiology), M., since 1935; Microbiology, M., 1932 — 1979; Acta patho-logica et microbiologica Scandinavica, K0benhavn, since 1924; Annales de Microbiolo-gie, P., since 1973 (Annales de l’lnstitut Pasteur, P., 1887 — 1972); Annual Review of Microbiology, Palo Alto, since 1947; Archivfiir Mikrobiologie, V., since 1930; Journal of Bacteriology, Baltimore, since 1916; Journal of General Microbiology, L., since 1947; Microbiological Reviews, L., since 1978 (Bacteriological Reviews, Baltimore, 1937 — 1977); Zentralblatt fur Bakteriologie, Parasitenkunde, Infektions-krankheiten und Hygiene. I. Abt. Medi-zinisch-hygienische Virusforschung und Parasitologie, Originale, Jena, page 1887.

V. S. Levashev; Yu. P. Pivovarov (dignity. mikr.), M. A. Tumanyan (I am glad. mikr.).