From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MICROBIOLOGICAL INDUSTRY — the industry of the national economy, in a cut productions are based on microbiological synthesis. The raw materials used in L. S. are petroleum hydrocarbons and gas, hydrolyzates of wood, waste of industrial processing of oil-bearing crops, sugar beet, cotton etc.

With the help mikrobiol, synthesis (microorganisms) make such major products and drugs as antibiotics of medical and not medical prescription, vitamins, enzymes, amino acids, vaccinal and immunogene drugs, fodder yeast, means of protection of plants, bacterial fertilizers, and also furfural, alcohol, xylitol etc.

of L. S. in our country it is created in 1966 on the basis of achievements in biological science, bioengineering, industrial microbiology, chemistry, physics, chemical and mikrobiol, technologies etc. The fermental drugs received by method mikrobiol of synthesis, are applied in various industries — spirit, brewing, baking, krakhmalopatochny, fur, tanning, paper, and also widely used in household chemicals, agriculture, cosmetics etc.

Mikrobiol, synthesis is carried out in a cell, at the same time idiosyncrasy of microorganisms is their ability to supersynthesis, i.e. the excess formation of nek-ry metabolic products exceeding requirement of the most microbic cell. So, glutaminic to - that can collect St. 10 mg in 1 ml of the environment instead of usual 100-th shares of milligram.

In L. S. use not only the cultures of microorganisms which are selected from natural sources, but also and mutants which are specially received in the artificial way — strains of microorganisms, at to-rykh supersynthesis is a consequence of disbolism under the influence of mutagens. E.g., by means of mutants it was succeeded to lift activity of biosynthesis of penicillin by 100 — 150 times. More modern engineering and biological systems are created, in to-rykh energy of enzymatic transformation of substances inherent to microorganisms it is used for the directed synthesis of products.

Technologically modern process mikrobiol, synthesis consists of a number of consecutive stages. Main of them: preparation of necessary culture of a microorganism producer; preparation of a medium; cultivation of an inoculum; cultivation of a producer in the set conditions, in the course to-rogo is also carried out mikrobiol, the synthesis which is often called by fermentation; filtering and department of biomass; allocation and cleaning of a required product; drying. Processes of allocation and cleaning of products are defined by the chemical nature of the received substance and can include extraction and hromatografichesky methods, crystallization, sedimentation. The most progressive way of cultivation it is considered continuous — with continuous feeding of a medium and a conclusion of products mikrobiol, synthesis. So produce, e.g., microbic biomass (fodder yeast). However the continuous way is developed far not for all processes mikrobiol yet. synthesis. In nek-ry cases, napr, by production of a number of enzymes, producers grow up not in reactors with aeration and hashing (a deep way), and on the surface of nutrient medium — a so-called superficial way.

At a gigabyte. to assessment of working conditions at the enterprises mikrobiol, the industries it is necessary to pay special attention to the characteristic of a microbic obsemenennost of the air environment and the production equipment — i.e. on biological production factor on modern classification of dangerous and harmful production factors, and also on levels noise (see) in workshops of separation. Degree of manifestation, duration and a mode of exposure on a human body of the physical and chemical adverse factors taking place in the conditions of L. S., as a rule, are insignificant.

At operation of the plants of L. S. environmental pollution by microorganisms producers and other substances can take place.

An adverse effect of factors, specific to L. S., can be shown as a result of impact of microorganisms producers on microflora of an organism, and also as a result of a specific sensitization of an organism (see. Sensitization ) various components of products mikrobiol, synthesis. In particular, development of a sensitization is noted at influence of the protein-vitamin concentrate received at cultivation of fungi producers on petroleum hydrocarbons.

Extent of influence biol, a factor on a human body is studied insufficiently, and the majority of the questions connected with working conditions is in a stage of studying.

At the heart of the actions directed to the prevention of an adverse effect of production factors on an organism of workers and the population lie such as implementation in production of advanced methods of catching of the microorganisms producers which are thrown out to the air basin with off-gases and sewage from reactors and separators, and also emissions of biologically active agents from the drying apparatus.

Sanitarnomikrobiologichesky control of the enterprises of L. S. is important, to-ry is necessary at assessment of efficiency of the events for improvement held at the enterprises tekhnol, process mikrobiol, synthesis and according to improvement of working conditions.

Bibliography: Vlodavets V. V. and Nemyria V. I. Sanitary and mycologic control of objects of the environment at the enterprises of the microbiological industry, the Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 1, page 25, 1977; Zaikinan. And., E l and N about in N. P. of N. P. O isobar of pathogenicity of the drozhzhepodobny mushrooms which are applied in the microbiological industry, Mikrobiol. prom-st, No. 11, page 33, 1972; And z r and y-l of e of t of L. I. and Feoktistov R. P. Justification of sanitary protection zones from some fermental enterprises, the Gigabyte. and dignity., M 6, page 80, 1970; Morozovm. P. The microbiological industry in anniversary year, Mikrobiol, prom-st, JSft 1, page 1, 1978; H e of m y r I am V. I. and In l about - d and in e of c of V. V. Environmental control from emissions of the enterprises of the microbiological industry, M., 1979, bibliogr.

V. P. Padalkin.