MICHURIN Ivan Vladimirovich

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MICHURIN Ivan Vladimirovich (1855 — 1935) — the Soviet biologist and the selector of fruit and berry crops, the honorary academician (1935), actions, the member of VASHNIL (1935), zasl. scientist and RSFSR (1934) equipment, honorary member of Czechoslovak agricultural academy (1934).

MICHURIN Ivan Vladimirovich

Worked in Kozlov of the Tambov region (nowadays Michurinsk). Before Great October socialist revolution I. V. Michurin's activity was not estimated; he conducted work on own slender means, but, despite it, refused offers of department of agriculture of the USA to sell the collections. Blossoming of creative activity of I. V. Michurin falls on the postrevolutionary period. V. I. Lenin paid attention to its works, having noted their great state value.

Afterwards on the basis of I. V. Michurin's nursery perfectly equipped VASHNIL Central genetic laboratory bearing his name was created in Michurinsk.

On the example of fruit crops it developed questions of the theory of the distant hybridization and its use in selection; methods of selection and management of development of hybrids, and also ways of management of domination of signs. Considering dominance as evolutionarily arisen property, I. V. Michurin approached the main question of hybridization — to selection of parent couples. It evidence-based and carried out in practice crossing geographically and ecologically remote forms of plants. Selection I. V. Michurin considered as acceleration of evolution and the direction it aside, useful to the person. It closely connected the researches with practice of selection work. It removed new grades of apples, pears, cherries, sweet cherries, plums, an apricot, grapes, raspberry, a gooseberry — only more than 300 grades, the best of which are grown up and now. Some of the methods of creation of new forms of plants developed by I. V. Michurin are applied by selectors and now, and its grades are used in hybridization for removal of new grades. It put forward the idea of saturation of fruits and berries vitamins and other biologically active agents by means of selection.

Works: Compositions, t. 1 — 4, M., 1948.

Bibliography: Bakharev A. N. Michurin in life, M., 1974; Библиография�фия I. V. Michurin's works and literature on it, sost. E. V. Parkhomenko and T. 3. Ginzburg, M., 1959; Vasilchenko I. T. Ivan Vladimirovich Michurin, M. — L., 1963; I. V. Michurin in memoirs of contemporaries, sost. A. N. Bakharev, etc., Tambov, 1963.

I. S. Isaeva.