From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MIALGIYA (myalgia; Greek my[s] a muscle + algos pain) — the symptom which is expressed the muscle pain (diffusion or in certain groups of muscles) arising as is spontaneous, and at a palpation. To m it is inherent in a large number of diseases, it is connected pathogenetic with disturbance of permeability of a cellular membrane, edematization or inflammatory changes, both specific, and nonspecific.

The m can sharply result from overcooling or an injury. M.'s symptom develops at an overtraining at athletes or during the performance of hard physical or unusual work; in these cases the moderate swelling of the muscles which were exposed to loadings is sometimes noted. Acute M. is characteristic of an attack of paroxysmal myoglobinurias (see), developing under the influence of a muscular overstrain.

Quite often M. is an initial symptom of a polymiositis (see. Miositis ), at Krom muscular weakness develops further, it is more in proximal departments of extremities, a moderate hypotrophy of muscles. The rheumatic polimialgiya is described, edges it is characterized by the pains and a muscle tension of a neck, a shoulder girdle extending then on a pelvic girdle and muscles of legs; at this EMG and a histologic structure of muscles (according to a biopsy) almost do not change.

M — a typical symptom of the parasitic miozit which are especially developing at a trichinosis, and also at cysticercosis and toxoplasmosis.

Enteroviruses from group of V-viruses — Koksaki cause so-called epidemic M., or a disease of Bornholm (see. Pleurodynia epidemic ). The disease proceeds in the form of flashes, is more often in children's collectives, or sporadic. Muscle pains are followed by temperature increase, a headache, sometimes vomiting, a diarrhea. They are localized preferential in muscles of a stomach and a thorax, proceed in the form of the strongest paroxysms.

The m is quite often observed at various inf. diseases, both acute, and chronic, including at flu, a brucellosis, and also at intoxications (alcohol, carbon monoxide gas, lead) and metabolic disturbances (diabetes, glycogenoses, especially V and VII types, primary amyloidosis).

Unlike neuralgia, at M. the palpation gives diffusion morbidity, there are no typical painful points of Vallée (see. Neuralgia ), but places of an attachment of sinews are painful, there are no disorders of sensitivity, characteristic symptoms of a tension of nervous trunks and tonic reflexes.

Treatment comes down to treatment of a basic disease, and also symptomatic — apply analgetics, moderate local heat, light massage, the diadynamic, harmonic modulated currents, an electrophoresis of novocaine, uv radiations. In rare instances purpose of steroid hormones is required. Sometimes M. resulting sharply from overcooling or an injury can pass without treatment.

Bibliography: Gausmanova-Petrusevich I. Muscular diseases, the lane with polsk., Warsaw, 1971; G arte of S. O. F an i r b a n k of T. J. The genetic about locomotor disorders, L. — Oxford, 1974; Disorders of voluntary mu cle, ed. by J. N. Walton, Edinburgh, 1974; McCabe E. S. Polymyalgiarheumatica, J Amer. Geriat. Soc., v. 24, p. 89, 1976.

H. A. Ilyina.