METHYLENE BLUE (Methylenum coeruleum; synonym: methylene blue, Methylenblau, Methylthionii Chloriduin; GFH) — an antiseptic agent. N, N,N', N '-Tetrametiltionina chloride; With 16 H 18 ClN 3 • 3H 2 O:
Dark green crystal powder or crystals, dark green with bronze luster. Let's difficult dissolve in water, we will dissolve in 95% alcohol a little. Water and spirit solutions have dark blue color. Water solutions will sterilize at t ° 100 ° within 30 min.
M. of page renders bacteriostatic effect due to interaction with mucopolysaccharides and proteins of microorganisms. Having oxidation-reduction properties, M. of page in an organism can be an acceptor and the donator of hydrogen what its use as an antidote at nek-ry poisonings is based on. From went. - kish. M.'s path of page it is soaked up not completely and in significant amounts it is allocated with a stake. At intravenous administration it is rather evenly distributed in an organism and the hl is allocated. obr. through kidneys in not changed look and partially in the form of a metabolite — leucomethylene blue. At renal elimination of M. of page paints urine in blue color. In this regard M. can be used by page as diagnostic means for a research funkts, conditions of kidneys about what judge by extent of release of drug with urine. However more reliable results in such researches are yielded by use of indigo carmine.
M of page. apply hl. obr. as an antiseptic agent and as an antidote at a number of poisonings (see. Antidotes of OV ). As M.'s antiseptic agent of page is appointed in the form of 0,02% of water solution (for washings at cystitis, pyelites, etc.) or in the form of 1 — 3% of spirit solutions for external use (at burns, a pyoderma and other damages of skin).
At diseases of urinary tract of M. of page it is possible to appoint inside: the adult on 0,1 g 3 — 4 times a day, to children — in a daily dose at the rate of 0,005 — 0,01 g for every year of life (in 3 — 4 receptions).
As an antidote at poisonings with cyanides, hydrogen sulfide and carbon monoxide M. of page enter intravenously in the form of 1% of water solution on 50 — 100 ml. With the same purpose sometimes use 50 — 100 ml of «hromosmon» — 1% of solution M. of page in 25% solution of glucose. The m of page accepts hydrogen, to-ry at poisonings with cyanides in the form of a proton collects in mitochondrions and by that eliminates one of the reasons of braking of processes biol, oxidations. Besides, M. the page transfers hemoglobin to a methemoglobin, to-ry strongly connects cyanides.
In small doses (0,1 — 0,15 ml of 1% of solution for 1 kg of body weight in a vein) M. the page causes recovery of a methemoglobin in hemoglobin and therefore it can be used at poisonings with metgemoglobinobrazuyushchy poisons (see. Methemoglobinemia ).
At M.'s appointment the page inside and parenterally can sometimes be noted nausea, vomiting, pains in a stomach, kidneys and a bladder.
Forms of release: powder; the ampoules containing on 20 and 50 ml 1% of solution M. of page in 25% solution of glucose. Storage: powder — in well corked container protecting from effect of light, solutions — in the place protected from light.
Use at histologic methods of a research
In M.'s histology of page is applied by hl. obr. for coloring of kernels of cells and other basphilic structures. During the coloring of acid mucopolysaccharides (the main substance of a cartilage, slime, granules of mast cells, etc.) by M. the village has property metachromasias (see). So-called polikhromny methylene blue (mix of azur of M. of page and methylene violet with methylene blue) use for coloring of blood cells for identification of polychromatophilous and basphilic and dot erythrocytes (e.g., at a plumbism). For this purpose use Munson's method — Schwartz, on Krom the blood smears fixed in methyl alcohol paint during 5 sec. in mixes of the following structure: 6 drops of 1% of solution M. of page in 2% solution boric to - you, 8 drops of 0,28% of caustic soda, 10 ml of a distilled water.
Bibliography: Mashkovsky M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p. 2, page 361, M., 1977; P about m of e y with B. Mikroskopicheskaya of the technician, the lane with it., page 328, M., 1954.
V. V. Ryazhenov, N. G. Hrushchov (gist.).