METEOROLOGICAL DEVICES — devices and installations for measurement and registration of physical characteristics of the terrestrial atmosphere (temperature, pressure and air humidity, speed and the direction of wind, cloudiness, rainfall, transparency of the atmosphere), and also water temperatures and soils, intensity of solar radiation etc. By means of L. S. find and estimate physical. processes, to-rye cannot be apprehended directly, and also conduct scientific research. M of the item are applied in various fields of science and technology, in many industries of the national economy.
In medical - biol, practice of L. S. are used for a research and assessment of climate of certain areas, and also a microclimate of residential and production buildings.
The first was created by L. S. in India for measurement of quantity of the dropping-out rainfall more than 2 thousand years ago, however regularly L. S. began to apply only in 17 century after the invention of the thermometer and a barometer. In Russia systematic klimatol. tool observations are made since 1724.
Depending on a way of data recording of L. S. are divided on showing and self-recording. By means of the showing L. S. obtain visual data, to-rye via the otschetny devices which are available in these devices allow to define values of the measured sizes. Thermometers, barometers, anemometers, hygrometers, psychrometers, etc. belong to the showing L. S. Self-recording L. S. (thermographs, barographs, gigrograf, etc.) automatically write down indications on a moving paper strip.
Air temperature, waters, soils is measured by thermometers: by liquid — mercury and spirit, bimetallic, and also electrothermometers, in to-rykh primary perception of temperature it is carried out by means of sensors (see) — thermoelectric, thermoresistive, transistor and other converters (see. Thermometry ). Registration of temperature is made by means of thermographs, and also by means of the thermoelectric converters connected (including and remotely) with recorders. Air humidity is measured psychrometers (see) and hygrometers (see) various type, and for registration of change of humidity in time use gigrograf.
Measurement and registration of speed and the direction of wind are carried out by means of anemometers, anemograf, anemorumbometr, weather vanes etc. (see. Anemometer ). The quantity of the dropping-out rainfall measure by precipitation gages and rain gages (see. Rain gage ), and register pluviographs. Atmospheric pressure is measured by mercury barometers, aneroids, gipsotermometra, and registered barographs (see. Barometer ). Intensity of solar radiation, radiation of the land surface and the atmosphere measure pirgeliometram, a feast-geometrami, actinometers, albedo-meters, and register pyranocolumns (see. Actinometry ).
The increasing value is gained by remote and automatic L. S.
Bibliography: Meteorological devices and automation of meteorological measurements, under the editorship of L. P. Afinogenov and M. S. Sternzat, L., 1966; Reyfer A. B., etc. Reference book on hydrometeorological devices and installations, L., 1976.
V. P. Padalkin.