METALLOORGANIC COMPOUNDS

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

METALLOORGANIC COMPOUNDS — chemical compounds in which atom of metal is directly connected with carbon atom and has in this regard positive polarity; treat group of hetero-organic compounds. The m of page which are found in the nature are metalloproteins (see). Magnesium - lithium - and natriysoderzhashchy M. villages widely use in laboratory and thin organic synthesis of pharmaceuticals, dyes, etc. Organo-mercuric compounds apply as antiseptic agents, bactericidal and medicines. Organotin connections apply as antioxidants, stabilizers of polyvinyl chloride and artificial rubbers, as insectofungicides and herbicides, and also antivermicular drugs. In the industry in large scales the tetraethyllead which is applied as an anti-detonator to motor fuel is produced.

General formula M. of page. , where M — metal; communication With — M can have ionic , covalent or intermediate character.

The nature of communication in a molecule M. of page is defined by the nature of an ion of metal, its size and electronegativity. Chemical properties M. of page, in turn, depend on the nature of communication. Connections, in to-rykh metal to carbon it is connected by a covalent bond (connection Zn, Hg, Ge, Sn, Pb) — steady. These are, as a rule, liquids or low-melting solid matters. M of page with an ionic bond between metal and carbon (connection Na, K, Li, Mg) are very unstable in relation to oxygen and water, ignite spontaneously even in the atmosphere of CO 2 .

M of page of a rastvorima in many organic solvents. Reactivity of M. of the page containing an ion of alkali metal is very big and when they contain an ion of heavy metal — is very low.

Atom of metal in M. easily exchanges page react to a proton, M. of page with haloids, oxygen, sulfur, forming halides, alcohols, thioalcohols, monothioesters. In reactions with alkyl halides M. of page form the extended alkyl chains.

Use of metalloorganic compounds in medicine. Mercury belong to number M. of the page applied in medicine and biology diuretics (see), organo-mercuric fungicides (see), the used for prevention of fungal damages of seeds and leaves of various plants, organic drugs arsenic (see) and bismuth (see).

Mercury diuretics mercusal (see), Novuritum (see), Promeranum (see) have diuretic effect thanks to the ability to oppress activity of enzymes of the kidneys participating in reactions of transfer of ions of electrolytes through cellular membranes — Na + , Cl - , K + , and also waters. Due to rather high toxicity of mercury diuretics their use is limited. Organic drugs of arsenic Novarsenolum (see), Myarsenolum (see), Osarsolum (see) have chemotherapeutic activity concerning spirochetes and nek-ry other pathogenic microorganisms (e.g., trichomonads or dysenteric amoebas). The mechanism of effect of these drugs consists in their ability to block SH groups of the corresponding enzymes, is irreversible breaking a chain of metabolic processes at these microorganisms. Organic compounds of bismuth biyokhinol (see) and Bismoverolum (see) use for treatment of nek-ry inflammatory processes of c. N of page, and also syphilis, especially in a combination with antibiotics of group of penicillin.


Bibliography: Nesmeyanov A. N. and Perevalova of E. G. Tsiklopentadi-enilnye of compound of metals and related connections, Usp. chemical, t. 27, No. 1, page 3, 1958, bibliogr.; Roberts J. and Kaserio M. Fundamentals of organic chemistry, the lane with English, t. 1, page 372, M., 1978.


N. V. Prokazova; V. P. Fisenko (pharm.).

Яндекс.Метрика