MERCURY (Hydrargyrum, Hg; synonym: Mercurium, Mercurius vivus, Argentum vivum) — chemical element of a secondary subgroup of the II group of a periodic system of elements of D. I. Mendeleyev; in medicine oxides, inorganic and organic salts of mercury use as pharmaceuticals, and cadmic and silver amalgams — as sealing materials in stomatology; mercury-containing connections apply as herbicides, pesticides and fungicides; vapors of mercury and its soluble compounds are poisonous and represent considerable professional harm.
The river finds broad application at production of thermometers, manometers, barometers, fluorescent lamps, quartz lamps — sources For the F-radiation, polarographs; it is applied as the catalyst in the chemical industries and a lab. sinteza of organic matters, as the cathode at electrochemical receiving caustic soda and chlorine, and also at production of paints. In mining of R. it is used for separation of gold from nonmetallic impurity.
Crust contains 7*10 - 6 % of mercury, in sea water 3*10 - 9 %. In the nature it meets hl. obr. in the form of bright red HgS sulfide (cinnabar), Krom is accompanied in small amounts by the native R. interspersed in the bearing breed in the form of drops.
Sequence number of mercury 80, at. weight (weight) 200,59. Natural R. represents mix of 7 stable isotopes, from to-rykh are most widespread 200 Hg (23,13%) and 202 Hg (29,8%). 11 radioisotopes P. are known, from them practically use only 203 Hg (half-life of 46,9 days) and 205 Hg (half-life of 5,5 min.). River — silvery, with metallic luster a heavy liquid; it is the only metal, to-ry at the room temperature is in liquid state. Density 13,5461 (20 °), t ° pl minus 38,89 °, t ° kip 357,25 °. R.'s solubility in water is very small and increases with increase in content in water of oxygen. Steam pressure of R. at 20 ° is equal to 0,0012 mm of mercury.
R.'s valency is usually equal in connections +2, and the general formula of such HgX connections 2 , where X — the monovalent radical. Also connections P. like Hg are known 2 X 2 , in to-rykh R.'s valency it is formally equal to +1. However atoms P. in these connections of a dvukhvalentna, but one unit of valency of each atom P. goes for communication with other atom P. The constitutional formula of such connections looks as follows: X \Hg Hg Hg Hg — Hg Hg — X. This communication remains also in solutions of the corresponding salts P., to-rye contain ions of Hg 2 2+ .
Mercuric compounds [Hg (II)] were called oxide R.'s connections earlier, and mercurous compounds [Hg (I)] — connections protoxidic R. Kislorod of air P. is oxidized only at long heating to temperature apprx. 350 °. At the same time HgO oxide of red color is formed, to-ry during the heating to 400 ° decays on oxygen and mercury above. The river directly reacts with halogens, sulfur, selenium and phosphorus.
Among activity of metals P. costs after hydrogen and therefore does not force out it from solutions to - t, reacting only with such to-tami, to-rye are oxidizers. E.g., with diluted nitric to - that R., taken much, forms one of the few Hg soluble salts 2 (NO 3 ) 2 , and with concentrated nitric to - they are Hg (NO 3 ) 2 . Hg (I) chloride, or calomel, Hg 2 Cl 2 receive, heating HgCl 2 with mercury: HgCl 2 + Hg -> Hg 2 Cl 2 . Hg (II) chloride, or corrosive sublimate, HgCl 2 it can be received by direct interaction of R. with chlorine. Hot concentrated sulfuric to - that dissolves R. with sulphating of HgSO 4 . Salt and diluted sulfuric to - that, and also alkalis do not act on R.
Hydroxides P. are not known. When it would be possible to expect them education, receive oxides P. So, at effect of alkalis on solutions of Hg (I) salts the burovatocherny deposit of Hg (I) — Hg oxide drops out 2 O; Hg (II) salts with alkalis form the yellow deposit of Hg (II) — HgO oxide which is modified during the heating in HgO of red color.
With many metals P. easily forms liquid or hard alloys — amalgams. Amalgams of silver and cadmium are chemically inert and solid at a temperature of a human body, but are easily softened during the heating. They are used in stomatology as sealing materials (see). Iron and steel are not amalgamated therefore R. store and transport in steel vessels.
Numerous organic compounds P. are known, from to-rykh generally two types find application in medicine: (RO) 2 Hg and RHgX where R is the organic radical, and X — the rest inorganic to - you or hydroxylic group.
One of the most ancient ways of receiving R. is calcinating of cinnabar in the presence of air HgS + O 2 —> Hg + SO 2 . The received R. for defecation is overtaken.
To qualitative methods of definition of a cation of Hg mercury 2 2+ refer reaction of recovery of its Hg salts 2 Cl 2 , Hg 2 (NO 3 ) 2 etc. in the presence of reducers like SnCl tin chloride 2 , copper, etc. As a result of reaction the deposit of black color is formed. At reaction of salts P. with caustic alkalis the black deposit of Hg (I) oxide, and with salts monohydroiodide is formed to - you (e.g., KI) are formed a deposit of Hg (I) iodide of dirty-green color. With potassium chromate K 2 CrO 4 cation of Hg 2 2+ forms a brick-red deposit of chromate of mercury. Quantitatively R. determine by a kompleksonometrichesky method (see. Kompleksonometriya ), methods spectral analysis (see) and the neutron and activation analysis (see. Activation analysis ), atomic adsorption, etc.
Content of vapors P. in air is determined by the method based on their absorption by solution of iodine in KI. The painted Cu complex [HgI 4 ] kolorimetrirut against the background of a white suspension of CuI (see. Colorimetry ). Test-sensitivity — 0,3 mkg of R. in the analyzed volume. The semi-quantitative express method of definition of R. by means of indicator pieces of paper is based on the same principle. R.'s couples of catch by means of a firm sorbent, test-sensitivity — 0,01 mkg of R. in the analyzed volume. In tests of water, the soil, R.'s rainfall determine by one of the stated above ways after pretreatment (concoction, extraction). R.'s number measure in biomaterial after a mineralization of test by mix sulfuric and nitric to - t during the heating.
In a human body and animal R. it is capable to kumulirovatsya preferential in parenchymatous bodies, and also in a brain and bones from where can come to blood. R.'s distribution in an organism is considerably caused by a type of its connection and way of its receipt in an organism. However in all cases of R. first of all collects in kidneys where it strongly communicates proteins of renal fabric. The depot P. in an organism remains very long, sometimes for years. There are data that
the telny ways of couple of R. which came to a dykh rezorbirutsya in an organism almost completely. According to other data, 2 3 R., contained in inhaled air, from lungs are removed with expired air. The river is allocated from an organism a long time, preferential through went. - kish. a path and kidneys, to a lesser extent with saliva, then and with bile. R. is brought out of an organism unevenly not only in the period of intoxication, but p for every day.
R.'s concentration is normal in urine to 0,01 — 0.05 mg/l, in a shelter of 0,001 mg / 100 of ml. Correlation between R.'s maintenance in blood and its concentration in inhaled air is found. At the same time constant compliance between these indicators, and also R.'s elimination from an organism and expressiveness of its toxic action is not noted. However in practice strengthening of R. in blood and urine is regarded as a sign of increase in danger of intoxication. On an organism
its interaction with SH groups of proteins, and also with their NH is the cornerstone of the mechanism of action of R. 2 - and COOH groups. Inactivating functional groups of fabric proteins, R. changes a configuration and properties of a proteinaceous molecule that leads to jumps (up to full suppression) enzymatic, hormonal and immunol. activities of proteins. In experimental conditions it is shown that at long impact on an organism of hematothermal animal small concentration of vapors P. (apprx. 0,01 — 0,03 mg/m 3 ) even in the absence of visible manifestations of toxic effect intensity of protein synthesis of a blood plasma and a liver and reactivity of molecules of proteins decreases. At the same time note reduction of maintenance of SH-group in blood serum, parenchymatous bodies, heart and lungs. On this background at experimental animals come to light patol. shifts from century of N of, cardiovascular disturbances, changes of function of hemadens, decrease immunol, reactivity of an organism. Introduction by an experimental animal of SH drugs, in particular the dithiols forming the most permanent and a little dissociating connections with mercury promoted recovery of the broken functions.
R. is industrial poison with sharply expressed toxic properties. Under production conditions it meets in the form of metal (elementary) R., and also in the form of inorganic and organic compounds. On extent of impact on an organism metal R. and its organic compounds (mercury diethyl, etilmerkur-chloride, etilmerkurfosfat, etc.) belong to industrial poisons I of a class of danger, the majority of inorganic compounds P. — iodide and nitrite P., red and yellow oxides of R., bromide P., the sulfate River (I), nitrate P. (I), acetic P. (I). monochlorated R., two-hlorpstaya R., etc. — also belong to poisons I of a class of danger.
Metal R. is airborne in the form of vapors, inorganic compounds P. — is preferential in the form of aerosols, organic compounds P. — in the form of vapors and aerosols. Raw materials or products tekhnol can be polluters of air. R.'s processings, and also so naz, sources of secondary air pollution — sorbed metal R.'s depot or its connections on building constructions, the production equipment, the worker and a lab. to furniture, overalls.
The sphere of production and metal R.'s use, its inorganic and organic compounds, and also devices with mercury filling is very extensive. It is R.'s production from crude ore, extraction from ores of noble metals; production of chlorine and caustic soda by a mercury method; amalgamation; production and use of measuring devices (mercury thermometers, aneroid barometers, manometers, etc.); production and use of electrotechnical devices (rectifiers of alternating current, mercury contacts, calomel electrodes, etc.); production of electric filament lamps, quartz and fluorescent lamps, X-ray tubes, radio tubes; production and use of corrosive sublimate, calomel and other connections P.; use of mercury-containing pesticides. organo-mercuric compounds at an antiseptirovaniye of wood and wooden designs; production and use of mercury-containing detonators; R.'s use at electrolytic processes as the cathode; R.'s use as the catalyst at various chemical processes, napr, during the receiving acetic to - you, in production of Promedolum and streptomycin etc.
In the course of receiving and R.'s use about its connections their receipt in an organism through a respiratory organs is possible (in the form of vapors and aerosols?, partially through went. - kish. a path and through skin.
The river has the expressed neurotoxic action, causes dysfunctions of parenchymatous bodies, especially kidneys, influences cardiovascular system, closed glands (especially thyroid gland) and gonads. Organic compounds P. render, besides, expressed embriotoksiche-sky and teratogenic effects. Structural disturbances in bodies and fabrics at influence of vapors P. are characterized by dystrophic changes in a brain and internals; in lungs along with the phenomena of a plethora, hypostasis, swelling of walls of vessels note the phenomena of productive and proliferative cellular reaction; hemodynamic and vascular frustration are observed. Early morfol. dystrophic changes of argyrophil fibers can be a sign of developing R.'s intoxication. At influence of inorganic compounds P. in renal fabric the picture of dystrophy and a necrosis of an epithelium of proximal and distal departments of nephron prevails.
are Distinguished acute and hron. R. Posledniye's intoxications depending on degree of manifestation and features a wedge, manifestations differentiate as intoxications easy (a functional stage), average (an organic stage) and heavy (toxic encephalopathy) degrees.
Hron. poisoning R. (mercurialism) is shown generally by defeat of a nervous system. The functional stage of intoxication is characterized by an adynamy (see. Asthenic syndrome ), already at early stages combined with nevrol. frustration and the accruing phenomena psychoorganic syndrome (see). Vegetative disturbances are typical (bent to tachycardia, arterial hypertension, etc.), subfebrile condition is possible. Feature of an adynamy are persistent headaches, dizzinesses, persistent sleep disorders — sleeplessness, a superficial dream with dreadful dreams, sometimes drowsiness in the afternoon, up to attacks narcolepsies (see). Also extreme irritability, irascibility, tearfulness, emotional instability, special fearfulness and a konfuzlivost (a mercury eretizm) are typical. All painful phenomena amplify at appearance of strangers — at their presence the patient cannot perform simple operations. Against the background of an adynamy quite often there are resistant phobias (see. Persuasive states ). Note changeable mood, especially in the evening, during the strengthening of an adynamy — with attacks of the alarming affect accompanied with vegetative simptokhma (perspiration, a shiver, blanching of the person). Frustration of a body scheme (see), and also the attacks paroksizmalno arising are possible derealization (see). Attacks are less often observed cataplexies (see). The thyroid gland is quite often increased, with signs of hyperfunction. Note functional disturbances of action of the heart — a myocardium io dystrophy (see), and went. - kish. a path (pain in epigastriums, nausea, sometimes vomiting with blood, watery excrements with blood and slime etc.). The most typical symptom hron. R.'s poisonings the small intensive tremor of fingers of outstretched arms, the raised legs, a century, language, and then all body is. At rest this state reminds trembling paralysis (see), and at movement — the phenomena arising at multiple sclerosis (see). Gait becomes atactic (see the Ataxy), the speech — dizartrichny (see. Dysarthtia ), handwriting changes (see. Letter ). Gradually finally the psychoorganic syndrome forms. In hard cases — dementia (see Weak-mindedness). Psychoses at R.'s poisonings are rare, and, as a rule, have character of an abortal gipnagogichesky delirium (see. Delirious syndrome ). After the termination of contact with R. and disappearance of other symptoms of intoxication mental disorders remain a long time and at development of a psychoorganic syndrome can become constants. Patients at hron. R.'s poisoning note metal taste in a mouth, the strengthened hypersalivation. Are characteristic periodontosis (see), bleeding of gums, ulitis (see). In blood, as a rule, a lymphocytosis, a monocytosis, anemia, a leukopenia is more rare. In urine sometimes traces of protein, single erythrocytes. During the progressing of intoxication the tremor gains character intentsionny and amplitude of trembling movements gradually increases. Increase of all above described symptoms characterizes transition of a functional stage to an organic stage hron. poisonings of River.
Mercury toxic encephalopathy meets seldom recently. Its characteristic symptoms: large, wide trembling of extremities (the hyperkinesia which was earlier incorrectly called a mercury tremor), strengthening of disturbances of mentality, the expressed astenisation, periodontosis, hron. stomatitis (see), glomerulonephritis (see); manifestations are possible polyneuritis (see).
Klien, picture of poisoning with inorganic compounds P. is very similar about a wedge, displays of poisoning with couples of the metal River. At organic R.'s influence frustration from c prevail. N of page.
R.'s maintenance in urine in the quantities exceeding 0,01 — 0,05 mg/l at corresponding a wedge, data is considered raised and confirming the diagnosis of mercury intoxication. At absence the wedge, data is diagnosed a so-called carriage of mercury. While manifestations hron. R.'s poisonings are known rather well, signs of a mik-romerkurializm (i.e. the symptom complex developing under the influence of small concentration of R.) are expressed indistinctly. It can lead to an incorrect conclusion that such concentration of R. are not hazardous to health. Symptoms a micromeasure rial of a-ism are shown most often on the second — the fourth year of work on production or in laboratory in contact with River. Against the background of the erased symptoms of mercury poisoning quite often note the sharp functional disturbances which are followed by noticeable shifts in morfol. to a picture of blood and vegetative frustration. Typical manifestation of a micromercurialism is a hyperexcitability of century of N of page, its especially sympathetic department. Often note manifestations of disturbances of the emotional sphere. Long preservation of a phase of a hyperexcitability of bark with accompanying patol is characteristic. lability of c. N of page.
Acute poisonings with couples of metal R., its inorganic and organic compounds are under production conditions possible only in emergencies or at gross violations of safety regulationss and personal hygiene. In life such poisonings have character of accidents and are extremely rare. Acute poisoning of R. is shown a wedge, a picture of an acute inflammation of upper respiratory tracts (see. Rhinitis , Tracheitis , Bronchitis ), stomatitis, disturbances of a nervous system, to the Crimea in different terms severe damages of kidneys and intestines join. Weakness, a headache develop, there are pains on the course went. - kish. a path, vomiting with blood, is at a loss swallowing, activity of kidneys up to an oliguria is broken, in blood the content of residual nitrogen increases. Renal failure (see) accrues and can lead to death in the 1st days after poisoning though usually the victim perishes in 10 — 30 days. Also fulminant forms of a course of intoxication are possible, at to-rykh death from a renal failure comes later 0,5 — 1 hours after reception of poison.
First aid and emergency treatment
At acute poisoning of R. of the victim it is necessary to lay on a stretcher, to take out on fresh air. If connections P. got into a stomach (swallowing danger by metal R., as a rule, does not represent), it is necessary to cause vomiting, to wash out a stomach a large amount of water, in a cut it is desirable to dissolve compounds of sulfur or to stir ovalbumin or active coal. Sulfur transfers R. to insoluble and almost non-toxic sulfides, to-rye are removed with a stake (see. Poisonings ).
Treatment is performed in the conditions of a hospital. At R.'s poisoning appoint antidotes Unithiolum, antidotum metallorum, Succimerum (see. Antidotes of OV , Antidotes ), and also symptomatic means. At initial stages hron. intoxications appoint intravenous injections of 40% of solution of glucose (20 — 40 ml) with ascorbic to - that, intramuscular injections of a gluconate of calcium, B1 vitamins? B6, lipamidum; balneotherapy, a galvanic collar (with calcium, on Shcherbaka), a diathermy on area of a liver, artificial hydrosulphuric bathtubs, four-chamber plating baths with sodium hyposulphite is desirable or are gray, UF-radiation in combination with heat pine needle baths; food pectin and a milk diet are shown. At more expressed forms of intoxication hospitalization is necessary. The strengthened R.'s removal from an organism is promoted by intramuscular injections of 5% of solution Unithiolum and on 5 ml within 10 days in a row or for 5 days with a break in 3 — 4 days, and also inhalations of an aerosol of Unithiolum; inside — on 0,5 g in 6 hours 4 times during the first three days, in the next four days — on 0,5 g 3 times in 8 hours to accept Succimerum (mesodimeasures-kaptoyantarnaya to - that) after food or to wash down with alkaline mineral waters. In total on a course 12 g of drug are required. Succimerum is used as well for intramuscular injections according to the corresponding scheme.
The resort therapy (Matsesta, Pyatigorsk, Sernovodsk) is shown at all stages of intoxication. For treatment of mental disturbances can be used nootropic means (see), tranquilizers (see), vitamins; for treatment of paroxysmal frustration — anticonvulsants (see).
Measures of the prevention of poisoning with mercury. The main measures for prevention of the prof. of poisonings of R. are: elimination of possible sources of mercury intoxication (the correct storage of R. and its connections, a complete elimination of R. or its replacement by less toxic connections in the field of industrial production etc.); localization of polluters mercury vapors of air of a working zone and other rooms and whenever possible elimination of these sources, protection of building constructions, the equipment and working furniture from R.'s pollution; observance of the appropriate measures of safety (positive-pressure ventilation, sealing of the equipment, etc.) and personal hygiene; regular so-called current demercurization of rooms where there are sources mercury zagryazneniyag and final, preferential chemical, demercurization of the contaminated R. production and a lab. rooms. If R. spilled on a floor and its smallest drops got to cracks of a floor, under a plinth or linoleum, places where R.'s droplets can be late, it is necessary to strew with powder of sulfur or to process 20% solution of ferric chloride or special paste. In industrial conditions of R. from a surface of walls, floors and the equipment delete with hydrowashout. In a lab. conditions of a drop of R. select by means of vacuum, the amalgamated plates or the moistened sawdust, and then process the contaminated places chemical demerkurizator (the pentasulphide of sodium acidified nitric to - that, potassium permanganate, etc.). Effective cleaning of overalls is necessary that is reached by heat treatment, use of chemical means and washing according to requirements of the special instruction. It is necessary to carry out systematically preliminary and current instructing of the persons having direct contact with R. and its connections in the accident prevention, and also preliminary and periodic medical examinations (see. Medical examination ). Working with R. and its connections privileges (the shortened working hours, special power supply) are provided, overalls (overalls, dressing gowns of deaf breed) and individual protective agents according to industry norms and rules are given.
Examination of working capacity
At hron. temporary transfer for other work for up to 2 months and out-patient treatment is necessary for R.'s intoxication of easy degree (functional disturbances of a nervous system). In case of repeated intoxication, insufficient efficiency of treatment, and also intoxication of average and heavy degree at emergence of an intentsion-ny tremor transfer into work out of contact with R. is necessary, at intoxication on the verge with toxic encephalopathy — transfer into disability.
Marginal kontsentra of the CPU and. In the USSR the following a gigabyte is approved. standards of admissible maintenance of R. and its connections: the maximum one-time IID K in air of a working zone for metal R. of 0,01 mg/m3, srednesmenny maximum allowable concentration of 0,005 mg/m3, average daily maximum allowable concentration for free air of 0,0003 mg/m3; maximum one-time maximum allowable concentration in air of a working zone for dichloride R. and other inorganic compounds P. of 0,2 mg/m3, srednesmenny maximum allowable concentration of 0,005 mg/m3 (definition will be out on an ion of mercury); maximum one-time maximum allowable concentration in air of a working zone for a diethyl of mercury, ethyl-merkurkhlorida and etilmerkurfosfa-that 0,005 mg/m3 (definition will be out on an ion of mercury); Maximum allowable concentration in water of reservoirs for the inorganic compounds P. determined by R.'s ion, 0,005 mg/l for mercury diethyl of 0,0001 mg/l.
Mercury in the medicolegal relation
At a research of corpses of the people who died as a result of R.'s poisoning in cases of approach of death in the first days after hit of poison in an organism, the uneven plethora of internals, a fluid lungs, ecchymomas under an epicardium, spotty reddening and swelling of a large intestine with a small necrosis of an epithelium and hypostasis of a submucosal layer reveal a hyperemia and swelling of a mucous membrane of a throat and gullet with education in nek-ry cases of a dense whitish-gray scab. At approach of death in later terms on opening find increased, plethoric, and at longer course of intoxication — pale or contracted kidneys with a reinforced layer of cortical substance of grayish or yellowish-gray color, with hemorrhages, dark red pyramids, gear at the basis; swelling of a large intestine, a thickening of its wall with swelling, hypostasis and a plethora of a mucous membrane, multiple hemorrhages and sites of a necrosis of various depth (from superficial, mentioning only an epithelium, to the deep necrotic ulcers taking a submucosal layer and muscular coats and leading to gangrene of a gut); in other bodies, especially in a liver, heart, adrenal glands, find more or less expressed dystrophic changes.
At gistol. a research find a plethora, a focal necrosis of a mucous membrane and hemorrhagic hypostasis of a submucosal layer of a gullet and stomach, and at a vaginal or rectal way of hit of connections P. to an organism — a vagina or a rectum; a total necrosis of an epithelium of gyrose renal tubules with full disintegration and further calcification of nek-rotizirovanny masses (a so-called sublimate nephrosis), a necrosis, an inflammation with plentiful leukocytic infiltration of a mucous membrane and a submucosal layer of a large intestine. At hron. intoxications reveal deep dystrophy of neurons, hl. obr. precentral and frontal furrows, hippocampus, area of a visual hillock and subcrustal gangliyev, Purkinye's cells of a cerebellum (pear-shaped neurocytes).
Court. - chemical definition of R. consists in destruction biol. material mix concentrated sulfuric and nitric to - t in the presence of ethanol during the heating on the water bath with the subsequent sedimentation of R. cupric iodide in the form of a tetrayodmerkuroat of Cu2HgI4 copper and kolorimetrirova-niy the formed painted complex connection.
The proof of poisoning of R. as causes of death is based on set a wedge, and morfol. manifestations, results court. - chemical and gistol. researches. As R. is found in human organs and is normal, define not only its absolute contents in internals, but also a ratio of content of this element in a liver and kidneys. If R.'s poisoning is not a cause of death, then R.'s maintenance in kidneys exceeds its contents in a liver (in terms of 100 g of body) and vice versa.
Drugs of mercury
Oxides P., its inorganic and organic salts have antiseptic and antiparasitic properties, have diuretic and laxative effect. Nek-ry drugs contain the metal River.
Drugs P. for to lay down. the were purposes are offered in 16 century by Paracelsus. In the second half of 20 century value of drugs P. in medical practice significantly decreased in connection with emergence of more active and less toxic pharmaceuticals.
Pharmakol. properties and pharmacokinetics of drugs P. are defined by their chemical structure, physical. - chemical properties also depend on a dosage form and ways of introduction. Local action of drugs P. on skin and mucous membranes, and also extent of absorption depend on their water solubility and biol. liquids. Soluble salts P. (e.g., mercury dichloride) denature proteins, and with increase in extent of dissociation of these salts expressiveness them cauterizing and irritant action increases. Solubility of salts P. increases in the presence of sodium of chloride and salts of other halogens. In an organism drugs P. dissociate, R.'s ions which are formed at the same time are distributed in bodies and fabrics unevenly. R. quickly enough, and organic compounds P. quicker, than inorganic is removed. However R.'s ability to cumulation in an organism is not subject to doubt therefore at prolonged treatment by drugs P. accumulation of ions of River in it is possible.
Side effects of drugs P. are very various and caused by its local and resorptive action. At topical administration drugs P. can cause local irritative effect. Nezhela - * telny resorptive action can be shown by a micromercurialism.
Depending on expressiveness of action drugs P. carry to different groups of pharmaceuticals. So, as diuretics (see) use its organic compounds mercusal (see), Promeranum (see) and Novuritum (see); because of high toxicity they find the lesser application.
As antiseptic, disinfecting and antiparasitics use organic and inorganic compounds P. Soluble compounds of R. work quicker and more actively, but they also are more toxic. The mechanism of antimicrobic action of connections P., as well as other salts of heavy metals, is caused by their irreversible linkng with SH-and other reactive groups of molecules of enzymes of microorganisms. The actor iostatichesky effect of drugs P. would be shown already at their low concentrations. However R. does not affect disputes of bacteria.
As antiseptic agents (see) use mercury dichloride, mercury oxycyanide, mercury ami-dokhlorid, mercury an oxide yellow, mercury monochloride.
Mercury dichloride (HgCl 2 ; Hydrargyri clichloridum; synonym: mercury two-chlorine isty, corrosive sublimate, Hydrargyrum dichloratum; GF X, SP. A) represents heavy white powder or white crystals, water soluble and ether, easily soluble in a boiling water and alcohol. It melts during the heating and disappears at an incandescence under draft. Water solutions of mercury of dichloride have acid reaction. Drug has high antimicrobic activity and is applied generally to disinfection of linen, objects of patient care, internal rooms. Dichloride is not suitable for disinfection of metal objects of mercury since it causes metallic corrosion. In the presence of proteins activity of drug decreases therefore to disinfecting of allocations of the patients containing proteinaceous components it is not applied. Mercury dichloride is very toxic; being soaked up, it can cause poisoning. In this regard it is not necessary to allow hits of drug on mucous membranes and skin. Besides, drug possesses the expressed irritant action.
Form of release: the powder and tablets (on 0,5 g and 1 g) consisting of mercury of dichloride and sodium of chloride (1:1); tablets are painted by 1% solution of eosine in pink or red-pinkish color. Tablets are intended only for external use — serve for preparation of solutions in concentration 1:1000 — 2:1000.
Mercury amidochloride (HgNH 2 Cl; Hydrargyri amidochloridum; synonym: mercury sedimentary white, Hydrargyrum amidatochlora-tum; GF X, SP. B) represents white lumps or inodorous white amorphous powder, water-insoluble, alcohol and ether and soluble at weak heating in divorced salt, nitric and acetic to-takh. Is a part of ointment of mercury white (Unguentum Hydrargyri album). Ointment supports 10 h mercury of amidochloride, 60 h vaseline and 30 h refined wool fat; it is applied at skin diseases as antiseptic and anti-inflammatory drug.
Mercury oxide yellow (HgO; Hydrargyri oxydum flavum; synonym: mercury sedimentary yellow, Hydrargyrum oxydatum flavum; GF X, SP. B) represents heavy, thin, yellow or inodorous orange-yellow powder, water-insoluble and easily soluble in salt and nitric to-takh. Is a part of ointment of the mercury yellow (Unguentum Hydrargyri oxydi flavi) consisting of mercury oxide yellow and a liquid paraffin (on 2 h), vaseline (80 h), refined wool fat (16 h). Use this drug of hl. obr. at inf. damages of eyes (conjunctivitis, a keratitis), and also at nek-ry skin diseases (a sycosis, seborrhea).
Mercury monochloride [Hg 2 Cl 2 ; Hydrargyri monochloridum; synonym: mild mercurous chloride, calomel, Hydrargyrum chloratum (mite); joint venture. B] represents heavy white or slightly yellowish fine-crystalline powder, water-insoluble, alcohol, ether and in divorced mineral to-takh. Earlier it was applied as laxative, diuretic and cholagogue means, now it is used only outwardly (in the form of 33% of ointment on vaseline and refined wool fat) at diseases of a cornea, blennory, etc.
Mercury oxycyanide [Hg (CN 2 ) - H 2 O; Hydrargyri oxycyanidum; synonym: mercury oxycyanic, mercury cyanide the main, Hydrargyrum Oxycyanatum; GF X, SP. A] represents white or slightly yellowish powder, low solubility in water, insoluble in alcohol and ether. Water solutions have alkali reaction. Use in medical practice is limited. Sometimes apply to washings (in cultivation 1:5000 — 1:10 000) at blennory, gonorrhea, conjunctivitis, cystitis.
Ointment mercury gray (Unguentum Hydrargyri cinereum) consists of the mercury ointment concentrated of refined wool fat, fat pork and fat of bull cleared, contains apprx. 30% of metal R. Primenyalas for treatment of syphilis by rubbing in in skin, now is used only as an antiparasitic at treatment of itch, etc.
Bibliography: Harmful substances in the industry, under the editorship of N. V. Lazarev and I. D. Gadaskina, t. 3, page 384, JI., 1976; Gladyshev V. P., Levitskaya S.A. and Filippova L. M. Analytical chemistry of mercury, M., 1974; Drogichina E. A. and Sadchik island and M. N. Intoxications mercury and its organic compounds, M., 1966, bibliogr.; Kotton F. A. and Wilkinson Dzh. Fundamentals of inorganic chemistry, the lane with English, page 454, M., 1979; Krylova A. N. A research of biological material on «metal» poisons by a fractional method, page 12, M., 1975; Krylova A. N. and Rubtsov A. F. About accumulation of mercury in bodies of a corpse of the person, Court. - medical examination, t. 23, No. 4, page 35, 1980; M and sh to about in with to and y M. D. Pharmaceuticals, p. 2, page 349, M., 1977; Acute management at acute poisonings, under the editorship of S. N. Golikov, page 123, 173, M., 1977; Eagle owl - in and P. P's h. Work with mercury in laboratory and working conditions, M., 1972; Trakhtenberg I. M. Chronic impact of mercury on an organism, Kiev, 1969; Trakhtenberg I. M. and M. N Kite. Current state and main directions of researches on a problem of a professional mercurialism, Gigabyte. and dignity., No. 9, page 66, 1970; they, Patterns of process of sorption desorption of mercury building constructions as a basis for development of a complex of demerkurizatsionny actions, in book: Gigabyte. work, under the editorship of Yu. I. Kundiyev, etc., century 7, page 70, Kiev, 1971; Mercury in the environment, ed. by L. Friberg a. J. Vostal, Cleveland, 1972; The pharmacological basis of therapeutics, ed. by A. G. Gilman and. lake, N. Y., 1980; Recommended health — based limits in occupational exposure to heavy metals, Techn. Rep. ser. No. 647, p. 102, Geneva, WHO, 1980.
V. P. Mishin; A. F. Rubtsov (court.), L. A. Serebryakov (pharm.), I. M. Trakhtenberg (gigabyte.), M. A. Tsivilno (loony.).