MENTAL DIZONTOGENEZ (grech, psychikos sincere, spiritual; dizontogenez) — disturbance of mental development is preferential in a children's p teenage age as a result of pathology of maturing of structures and functions of a brain.
The term «mental dizontogenez» appeared in the Soviet literature on psychiatry in the 70th 20 accusative of consider as a component of the general dizontogenez. Distinguish antenatal and post-natal dizontogenez. Main types II. are a retardation, or a microplasai, the disproportional, or distorted mental development, and the broken mental development on the basis of age dysfunction of maturing.
The term «retardation» designate a temporary or resistant stop of mental development, and also a delay of its speed. Distinguish the general mental retardation and a partial (partial) retardation of separate mental functions and properties of the personality. Disproportional development of G. E. Sukhareva (1959) and other researchers call the uneven, dissociated mental development evolving from the asynchronous development which is shown an advancing of maturing of one mental functions and properties of the forming personality and lag of others. The broken mental development on the basis of age dysfunction of maturing results from fixing under the influence of adverse environmental factors of the unripe forms of reaction inherent to earlier period of ontogenesis (see).
Wedge. manifestations of a retardation are various. The general mental retardation is the cornerstone of oligophrenias (see) and so-called delays of mental development, including a part of cases of mental infantility (see Infantility, mental). The partial mental retardation takes place at a neuropathy (see), at some conditions of mental infantility which can become a basis of formation of a number of psychopathies (see), e.g. unstable and hysterical type. Besides, it can be expressed by lag of development of separate mental functions, in particular attention, space perception, the speech, the letter, the account.
At disproportional development various wedge, options of a psychopathy and accentuation of character are possible (see. Psychopathies ): schizoid, epileptoidny, psychasthenic, gipertimny types, etc., psychogenic patol, formation of the personality. Besides, at disproportional development early children's autism — Kanner's syndromes can be observed. Asperger, etc. Common features of these syndromes are the expressed insufficiency or total absence of need of the child for contact with people around, emotional coldness, fear of novelty, uniform behavior with tendency to the stereotypic movements. Of Kanner's syndrome are characteristic lag in development of the speech and this or that degree of intellectual insufficiency, and of Asperger's syndrome — the advancing speech and intellectual development.
At the broken mental development on the basis of dysfunction of maturing more or less long preservation of passing forms of reaction, to inherent normal earlier age stages of development of the child, or manifestation of regressive behavior takes place (motor stereotypies, an echolalia, an ekhopraksiya, stutter and halts in speeches, fears, some types patol. imagination, so-called pathological usual actions at children), meeting at various mental diseases (see). The item of on the basis of age dysfunction of maturing in some cases can be observed during later age periods.
Some researchers, e.g. V. V. Kovalyov (1979), allocate negative dizontogeneticheskiye and productive dizontogeneticheskiye symptoms and syndromes. To symptoms carry to a negative dizontogeneticheskim a retardation and dissociation of mental development. Productive dizontogeneticheskiye symptoms are caused by release ontogenetically of earlier levels and forms of mental reaction.
On features of an origin and dynamics distinguish evolutive (not procedural) P. of, to-rogo only the factor to a narusha a niya of development, and the procedural P. of which is a consequence of the disease process (schizophrenia, epilepsy, the progressing organic disease) which arose before completion of maturing of c is the cornerstone. N of page Besides, some researchers allocate so-called domanifestny P. to at schizophrenia. Dynamics of the disturbances connected with not procedural P. has evolutive character, i.e. submits to the general patterns of normal mental development, but differs from it on speed, terms of maturing and character of ratios of separate components of the personality. Dynamics a wedge, procedural P.'s manifestations by more difficult and substantially depends on weight and rate of a current of a basic disease.
The pathogenetic basis of P. of is made by mechanisms of disturbance of speed and sequence of maturing of the item of N of page. However neyrofiziol. the essence of these mechanisms is studied insufficiently. In P.'s origin of can play a role as biological (genetic, ekzogenio-organic), and social and psychological environmental pathogenic factors. The item of caused by social and psychological pathogenic influences has less deep and more reversible character in comparison with P. caused biol, factors. It is connected with bigger degree of a maturity and formation of structures and functions of a brain when pathogenic social and psychological factors begin to work.
The item of is the major pathogenetic factor at many mental diseases having character patol, states, in particular at such congenital anomalies as oligophrenias, psychopathies, mental infantility, etc. At the mental diseases having the nature of process, napr at schizophrenia, P. of plays a role of an accessory pathogenetic factor at the beginning of a disease at children's and teenage age. Along with this P. is one of important factors of the so-called changed soil which is of particular importance during the developing of various psychogenic diseases — neurosises (see), reactive states, psychogenic patol, development of the personality (see. Pathological development of the personality ). P.'s role of especially increases during the transition age periods, first of all in pubertal.
Knowledge of types and a wedge, P.'s manifestations by has practical value for diagnosis, the forecast, and also development of measures of prevention, treatment and social rehabilitation at mental diseases.
Bibliography: Bashina V. M. Early children's schizophrenia, M., 1980; Vro-n about M. Sh. O mental dizontogeniye at children, Vestn. USSR Academy of Medical Sciences, No. 10, page 67, 1979; Kovalyov V. V. Problem of relationship of biological and social children's age in psychiatry, Zhurn. a neuropath - and nsikhiat., t. 73, No. 10, page 1508, 1973, bibliogr.; it, Psychiatry of children's age, M., 1979; about N e, Mental dizontogenez as a kliniko-pathogenetic problem of psychiatry of children's age, Zhurn. neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 81, No. 10, page 1505, 1981, bibliogr.; Disturbances of maturing of structures and functions of a children's organism and their value for clinic and social adaptation, under the editorship of V. V. Kovalyov, page 7, 57, M., 1976; Sukhareva G. E. Clinical lectures on psychiatry of children's age, t. 2, page 343, M., 1959, t. 3, page 238, M., 1965; Ushakov G. K. Children's psychiatry, page 45, M., 1973; Yuryeva O. P. About types of a dizontogenez at the children sick with schizophrenia, Zhurn. neuropath, and psikhiat., t. 70, No. 8, page 1229, 1970; Kretschmer E. Konstitutionelle Entwicklungsphysiologie, ihre experimentelle und arbeitswissenschaftliche Erforschung, Z. menschl. Vererb. - u. Konstit. - Lehre, Bd 32, S. 337, 1954; it, Akzeleration und Retardierung vom psychiatrischen Standpunkt aus, Z. Kinderpsy-chiat., S. 106, 1959; it, Medizinische Psychologie, Stuttgart, 1971; about N of e, Reifung als Grund von Krise und Psychose, Stuttgart, 1972.
V. V. Kovalyov.