MENDEL Gregor (Mendel Gregor Johann, 1822 — 1884) — the Czech scientist, the founder of genetics.
In 1843 ended philosophical classes at un-those Mr. Olmyutsa (nowadays Olomouc) and same year as G. Mendel in the autobiography notes, becomes the novice of the Augustinian monastery of Mr. Bryunn (nowadays Brno) to avoid «painful cares of daily bread». However he was exempted from duties of the priest since always aimed at natural sciences, a cut taught at high school (1849 — 1868).
From 1851 to 1853 Mendel studies in Vienna un-that physics, mathematics, chemistry, zoology, botany, physiology, phytopathology, the general paleontology, entomology. Soon after return from Vienna un-that began the well-known experiments on crossing of kinds of peas, having set the task to establish the general law of education and development of hybrids. For achievement of this purpose, in his opinion, it is necessary «to define number of various forms in which descendants of hybrids appear, with reliability to distribute these forms on separate generations and to establish their mutual numerical relations». In 10 years of hard work he carried out the analysis of 27 225 plants, and 12 835 copies were subjected to a careful research. Results of work he reported in 1865 in Ob-ve of scientists of Mr. Bryunn and published in 1866 in works of it about-va. It was classical work «Experiences over vegetable hybrids» where philosophy of the doctrine about heredity (are formulated see. Mendelism ).
Severity of a technique of an experiment, mathematical accuracy of variation and statistical approach, qualitative biol, interpretation of results of hybridization — here those essential lines of a method of G. Mendel, unity to-rykh promoted opening of rules of free discrepancy and a combination of hereditary factors (see. Mendel laws ).
G. Mendel's work was known to biologists, but was not understood in the essence till 1900 when X. de Fris, E. Tschermak and Korrens (To. Correns) experiences validated its conclusions.
G. Mendel, besides, conducted researches on meteorology, beekeeping, fruit growing and gardening. In scientific work it always proceeded from a natural, natural explanation, without resorting to the help of the idea of god.
Works: Versuche iiber Pflanzen-Hybriden. m, 1865 (Russian lane, M., 1965); The Chosen works, M., 1968 (sovm, with other).
Bibliography: Wolodin B. Mendel, M., 1968; Gaysinovich A. E. Origin of genetics, M., 1967, bibliogr.; it e, Gregor Mendel and destiny of his opening, Vopr, philosophies, No. 7, page 77, 1972; Oryol Century. As Mendel's theory, the Nature, No. 5, page 67, 1972 was born; Pastushny S.A. Evolution of outlook of G. Mendel, Vopr, philosophies, No. 7, page 121, 1976; F-lipchenko both Yu. A. Francis Galton and Gregor Mendel, M., 1925; Frolov I. T. and Pastes ushny S. A. Mendelizm and philosophical problems of modern genetics, M., 1976, bibliogr.
S. A. Pastushny.