MENDELEYEV Dmitry Ivanovich (1834 — 1907) — the great domestic chemist.
In 1855 graduated from department of natural sciences physical. - a mat. f-that the Main thing pedagogical in-that in St.-Petersburg. In 1856 defended the dissertation «About specific volumes», in 1857 it is approved as associate professor S. - St. Petersburg un-that on department of chemistry. In 1859 it is sent for 2 years abroad (to Heidelberg) for improvement in chemistry. In 1861, having returned to St.-Petersburg, gave lectures in un-those on organic chemistry. In 1864 it is elected professor of department of chemistry of S. - St. Petersburg technological in-that.
In 1865 after protection dokt, theses «About compound of alcohol with water» it is elected ordinary professor S. - St. Petersburg un-that on department of technical chemistry, and since 1867 — on department of inorganic (general) chemistry. In 1876 the member correspondent S. - St. Petersburg is elected by AN. In 1890 during student's disorders the minister of education refused to accept D. I. Mendeleyeva, to-ry had to transfer it the petition of students; in protest D. I. Mendeleyev left S. - St. Petersburg un-t. In 1893 he headed the Main bureau of standards created on its initiative (nowadays All-Union research in-t of metrology of D. I. Mendeleyev) where he worked until the end of life.
The scientific heritage of D. I. Mendeleyev is extensive and many-sided. His compositions published by Academy of Sciences of the USSR make 25 volumes and cover various questions of natural sciences, the equipment, economy and education. The periodic law of chemical elements opened for them in 1869 and the periodic system of chemical elements created on the basis of this law were the most significant contribution to D. I. Mendeleyev's science which brought it the world glory, to-rye are a basis of the modern doctrine about substance. Using the periodic system created by it, D. I. Mendeleyev for the first time in the history of chemistry predicted existence of unknown in its time of chemical elements and in details described their presumable properties. Opening of three of these elements in 1875 — 1886 and full coincidence of their properties to the properties predicted by D. I. Mendeleyev served the world recognition of the law and system of elements of Mendeleyev. F. Engels about it wrote: «Mendeleyev, having applied unconsciously Hegelian law on transition of quantity to quality, made a scientific feat which can safely be put near opening of Leverye who calculated an orbit yet not of the known planet — the Neptune» (Marx K. and Engels F., Compositions, the 2nd prod., t. 20, p. 389).
D. I. Mendeleyev created the hydrated theory of aqueous solutions which was generally recognized. According to this theory between the dissolved substance and water there is a chemical interaction leading to formation of the fragile chemical connections called by hydrates existence to-rykh was proved to them experimentally. In 1861 it opened existence of the absolute temperature of boiling called now by critical temperature, the cut is higher substance can be only in gaseous state. He conducted a number of basic researches in the field of metrology, to-rymi prepared introduction in our country of metric system of measures.
D. I. Mendeleyev created the classical guide of «Fundamentals of chemistry» translated on English, is mute. and fr. languages. The closest communication of the theory with practice was characteristic feature of scientific creativity of D. I. Mendeleyev.
In the numerous works which are of interest and now, relating to the sphere of the national economy he paid special attention to the oil, coal, metallurgical and chemical industry.
Great interest was shown by D. I. Mendeleyev to questions of health protection. In numerous performances in the press he drew a gigabyte on need of fight against high incidence and mortality of the population, improvement. service conditions, wide use of domestic raw materials for receiving pharm, drugs. D. I. Mendeleyev developed specific measures against pollution by industrial garbage of free air, reservoirs and soils, to-rye did not lose the value for a gigabyte till this moment. sciences and dignity. practicians. Within 23 years it fruitfully worked as the member of Medical council — the highest medical scientific and methodical center of Russia of that time. D. I activity. Mendeleyeva in the field of health care was highly appreciated from wide medical circles: it was elected the honorary member of many medical about-in including Medicochirurgical academy.
Many interesting projects are offered to them in the field of national education and education. In the works on economy D. I. Mendeleyev conducted promotion for economic and cultural independence of Russia.
In the outlook D. I. Mendeleyev was a consecutive materialist. He recognized primacy of matter, objectivity and cognoscibility of the laws of nature, continuity of matter and the movement, qualitative distinction between different forms of motion of matter. He actively opposed an energetism; under its management in 1871 the special commission on exposure of antiscientific essence of spiritism worked.
D. I. Mendeleyev was a member of many foreign academies of Sciences and scientific about - century. In 1880 A. M. Butlerov and other progressive Russian scientists put forward D. I. Mendeleyeva in S. members - the St. Petersburg academy of Sciences, but its candidate was rejected by reactionary most academy.
In D. I. Mendeleyev's memory since 1907 in our country Mendeleevsky congresses in theoretical and applied chemistry are convened. The name of D. I. Mendeleyev carries All-Union chemical about-in, Moscow chemical - technological in-t and Tobolsk pedagogical in-t. Mendeleevsky awards for the outstanding works on physics and chemistry awarded by Academy of Sciences of the USSR are founded. In honor of D. I. Mendeleyev are called: the underwater ridge in Sowing. The Ledovity ocean, an active volcano on the lake of Kunashir (Kuril Islands), a crater on the Moon, mineral (mendelevit), the research vessel of Academy of Sciences of the USSR for oceanographic researches, etc.
See also Periodic Table .
Works: Compositions, t. 1 — 25, JI., 1934 — 1954; Chosen compositions, t. 2—3, JI., 1934; Fundamentals of chemistry, t. 1 — 2, M. — L., 1947; Periodic law, M., 1958.
Bibliography: Grushko Ya. M., D. I. Mendeleyev and medicine, Owls, medical, No. 8, page 139, 1957; D. I. Mendeleyev in memoirs of contemporaries, M., 1973, bibliogr.; Kondratovich R. And, D. I. Mendeleyev, Experience of the bibliography, M. — L., 1934; Babies M. N. and Tyshchenko V. E. Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, t. 1, p.1 — 2, M. — L., 1938; H at and e in L. A. Dmitry Ivanovich Mendeleyev, L., 1924.
V. P. Mishin.