From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MEMORY — property of living matter, thanks to Krom live organisms, perceiving influences from the outside, are capable to fix, keep and reproduce the acquired information. In the most usual sense the concept «memory» defines one of the most important functions of c. the N of page, on a basis a cut an organism can make use of the last experience for creation of behavior in the present. To the item it is inherent in all organisms, however degree of its expressiveness depends on the level of evolutionary development.

Distinguish the specific P. caused by genetic factors of this look and the individual P. acquired by each separate organism in the course of his life. At the same time individual P. depends not only on influence of the environment, but also from the specific Item. At the same time they continuously interact in dialectic unity and a contradiction as two parties of uniform process of reflection. Therefore the possible volume and individual P.'s maintenance are predetermined by genetically structurally functional specifics of c. N of page of this look.

Philosophy of assimilation and storing of information are uniform for all biol, systems. For process of evolution of function P. use of the mechanisms developed at the previous stages of development as elements is characteristic of formation of new systems. Specific P. is the material carrier the genetic device of cells (see. Genome ). DNA of cells contains the genetic code providing transfer of ancestral features — i.e. reproduction of separate cells and an organism in general. The hypothesis is made that individual P. is coded similarly genetic information. However the numerous researches directed to identification of a role of DNA in individual P. did not confirm individual P.'s communication with metabolism of DNA. The saved-up facts indicate a possible role of RNA in processes of formation and storage of traces of individual memory. The drugs increasing synthesis of RNA (e.g., Phenaminum), accelerate process of training and promote fixing of the developed skill. It is shown also that in a brain of animals in the course of their training there is strengthening of synthesis of RNA.

An important role in implementation of function P. is played by progressive differentiation of structures of a brain, its mezhneyronalny and synoptic bonds. At the same time increase in number of nervous cells expands opportunities individual with the Item. Formation of various synapses (see) much strengthens plastic opportunities of a brain and individual P.'s volume

Thus, it is possible to consider that individual P. is implemented through biochemical, the device of nervous cells and the structurally functional organization of elements of c. N of page.

There is a communication between development of certain skills and strengthening of synthesis of various peptides (proteins) with rather low molecular weight (weight). Assume that these peptides (proteins) like neurotransmitters can influence ion permeability of postsynaptic membranes. Are secreted the nek-ry specific low-molecular proteins (S-100, 14-3-2, etc.) participating in regulation of synaptic conduction and thus exerting impact on processes of the Item. The functional role of neurospecific proteins, and also polypeptide hormones and cyclic mononucleotides in P.'s processes comes down eventually to modulation of activity of synapses, and through them — activities of neurons (see. Nervous cell ).

The synapse is considered the main substrate of storage of P. At the same time transition structural (perhaps, conformational) reorganizations of proteinaceous macromolecules of postsynaptic membranes on proteins som of neuron is possible. Changes of processes of exchange in neuron, including changes in the genetic device of a cell, cause formation of new synoptic bonds between neurons. A special role is played by plastic transformations of the nshpiko-vy device representing the most specialized educations of membranes of nervous cells.

Process of training (individual experience) exerts a direct impact on the structural organization of a brain. Data that at the animals who are contained in a difficult surrounding situation the bigger number of synapses is formed are obtained, there is an increase in thickness of a postsynaptic membrane of neuron in nek-ry layers of bark of big hemispheres, extent pre-and postsynaptic zones, increase in diameter of a synoptic plaque and other changes.

Depending on time of deduction of information allocate short-term and long-term P. Kazhdaya from them is implemented on the basis of various mechanisms, has various capacity and stores a special form of information. Carry to short-term P. as well a so-called direct print. This special type of P. is characterized by the extraordinary capacity («a full picture of the world»), but duration of saving information does not exceed fractions of a second. The functional purpose of this type of P. consists in extension of duration of effect of short external signals of a pas time sufficient for their processing in c. N of page, napr, a continuity of subjective perception of short discontinuous signals (separate shots) coming to a brain during viewing of the movie. The touch systems realizing process of a direct print do not define biol, the importance of the entered information for this individual in his this state. The print holds redundant information for time sufficient for selection of significant information and transfer it on other level (form) of short-term P. Kratkovremennaya P. has small capacity and provides storing of information within 30 — 60 sec., i.e. for time sufficient for an identification and the corresponding interpretation of signals. Repetition possible to increase several duration of saving information, but its capacity at the same time does not change. This form of memory is characterized by hypersensitivity to external hindrances.

Long-term P. provides storing of information practically throughout all life. However ways of selective elution of required information from long-term P. remain still not studied. Even the most perfect information retrieval systems reflecting these or those ideas of this process hardly approach the principles a little, the Crimea follows a high-organized brain of animals and the person at selective mobilization of the long-term P. Vspominaya, we subjectively feel only result of search operations, to-rye proceed extremely quickly and subconsciously.

Temporary criteria short-term are defined by long-term P.'s N not enough. It is easier to carry out distinctions between these forms P. on influence on them of so-called retrograde amnesia (the phenomenon, a cut consists in a zabyvaniye it is direct previous experience owing to any experimental impact on a brain, napr, an electroshock). Feature of display of retrograde amnesia consists that selectively vulnerable is only short-term P.: the person forgets only about events of the next past, but keeps P. about the events remote in time. The otdalenny the term of drawing an electroshock from the moment of acquisition of new skill, the retrograde amnesia is to a lesser extent expressed. It testifies to gradualness of transition of short-term P. in long-term and to existence of intermediate forms P.

The first stage of short-term P. lasting within milliseconds can be connected with electric processes in synapses. Assume that it is caused by reverberation (circulation) of impulses in the closed neural chains. Approach following, intermediate, stages of process is characterized by the bigger duration of reverberation, up to 2 — 12 min. The intermediate stage is called also a stage of consolidation of P. Dopuskayut that it is implemented through the composite biochemical reactions — synthesis of macromolecules and neurospecific proteins. The stage of consolidation represents transition in long-term the Item.

The psychologists first P. which began to study, divide individual P. into different types. Allocate, e.g., figurative P. (i.e. storing of an image of the objects perceived through various sense bodys). Images can be visual (visual P.), acoustical (acoustical P.), flavoring, etc. Determine by motive P.'s concept ability to remember the sequence and the nature of various movements.

As finds reflection not only the outside world in P., but also dynamics of the internal events which are taking place in an organism, in particular in the brain allocate P. for internal states. This form P. makes a basis of ability of any reproduction of any complete states, napr, emotional (emotional P.) that matters for processes of self-control of brain activity. Formation of a matrix of P. reflecting characteristics of complete system of the intra central bonds steady patol, the states arising in the course of adaptation of a brain to any harming influence is possible (see. Nervous system, pathological physiology ). Stability, patol, inertness of this developed system of bonds are defined by the fact that the brain reproduces it on memory even after the harming factor is already eliminated. A factor of stability patol, states with P.'s matrix supporting him it is important to consider at interpretations of a pathogeny and at treatment hron, diseases. Finding of a factor of destabilization steady patol, states appears a condition of success of treatment according to idea of P. on internal events.

The special attention is deserved verbal, or semantic, by the form P. specific to the person. It is defined as imprinting and preservation of the thought put into words. The person therefore easily remembers words that any identified word becomes for it psychological unit what was its length. For example, P. of the person is overloaded in attempt to remember senseless Nov of a ledov a telnost of the letters which are not combining in the logical sequence of words. It occurs because in this case each letter turns into the independent, subject to storing unit.

Process of storing can have involuntary character (involuntary P.) or any (any P.). In the first case storing accompanies activity of the person and is not connected with special intention to remember something. Any storing is connected with the presetting on storing; it most productively also is the cornerstone of any training, but demands observance of special conditions (comprehension of the remembered hmaterial, extreme attention and concentration etc.).

Exclusively great value at implementation of almost all mental processes and behavior operational P. — a version short-term has the Item. It is intended for deduction of information on the course of its extraction from long-term P. in the course of implementation of these or those types of activity. Operational P. holds subproducts of implementation of various links of the planned complete operation. The small volume of operational P. limits possibilities of the person in the oral account, mental playing of the imagined effects of alternative decisions, etc. Parameters of a net result of the planned action subjectively are estimated as intention. Feature of this state is that it is connected with the emotional tension supporting long preservation of a memorable trace in an active state. Thus selective attention and, therefore, selective perception of the environment is provided. Stability of a memorable trace is shown in its deduction even if action is interrupted. Then the strengthened attempts to carry out behavior for implementation of the planned result are observed.

All types of short-term and long-term P. are involved in formation and sale of the mechanism conditioned reflex (see). In essence this mechanism represents the device of the correct sequence of extraction of memorable traces. Afferentation from an irritant takes a memorable trace of a signal, to-ry against the background of the corresponding motivation and an obstanovochny afferentation takes a memorable trace of result. The item about result, accompanied with an emotional component, provokes implementation of the motor program providing achievement of the planned result (see. Motivations ).

Function P. undergoes development in the course of ontogenesis. Quantum leap in this development is transition from use of one only inborn (natural, involuntary) forms of storing and reminiscence to cultural, or any, its forms. Any reminiscence and any storing are skills, tool devices of the person for successful interaction with the environment. They develop under direct influence of main types of practical activities and are mediated by approximate and selective P., edges are represented by the directed extraction from P. of parameters of significant incentives, including and parameters of useful result of various functional systems. Any forms of implementation of long-term P. represent a product of culture and define success of activity of this individual in the social environment. Seizes these skills of people in process of training, one of the most important problems of which consists in «training to study», in mastering such ways of knowledge what any storing and reminiscence are. Any reminiscence is carried out due to mental reconstruction of an event on the basis of last experience and is, thus, rather difficult mental act.

Differentiation of processes of short-term and long-term P. comes to light also in the analysis of influence of processes of aging on function II. Senile (an outer entrance hall of l ny) P.'s changes specifically concern disturbance of processes of transition in long-term the Item.

With age ability to remember and store new experience is gradually lost.

However even in cases of strong loss of P. on current events old people can successfully keep up the conversation as they at them, as a rule, remain all volume earlier created speech P. and function operational P. Simptomatika of age disturbances of P. is shown also in the raised ugasayemo-sta of short-term memorable traces by collateral interfering influences.

Standard methods are developed for assessment of organic and functional frustration of P. The nature of defect of P. (disturbance of coding, storage or extraction) is defined by special tests.

E.g., in the test for the volume of a short-term memory odnokhmo-mentno show to the person a mere verbiage for storing, and then consider how many words (i.e. psychological units) he remembered. The number of units, a cut of people remembers at single presentation, determines its

P. U volume of different people memory size varies, but not in very wide limits. At presentation of the studied number of figures or words which are not connected on sense, to-rye it is necessary to call one after another, P.'s volume is equal to number 7+2. Carry out also tests for «revival» and for «identification»; in the first case, e.g., ask: «What is her name?», in the second — «Her name is Aleksandra or Anna?». These tests can be used for division of processes of storage and reproduction of the Item.

There are no enough convincing proofs of direct participation of any studied structures of a brain in mechanisms P. At the same time the mediated (modulating) influence of nek-ry educations on these or those parties of P. therefore there is a change (reorganization) on the new mode improving or worsening implementation of mnemostichesky functions is revealed. Further progress in studying of structural bases of P. most likely will be connected with improvement of neurophysiological and biochemical methods of a research.

The first conclusions about localization of function P. in a brain became on the basis of overseeing by patients with injuries and other damages of a brain. It was revealed that the people who transferred extensive injuries of a brain often do not show the expressed P.'s disturbances; accurately only disturbances of the speech at destruction of the left hemisphere at right-handed persons came to light. In search of a specific trace of P. (engramm) conducted a set of animal experiments. At first they were trained in performance of various actions, and then destroyed these or those parts of a brain, hoping to find the place where P. about this skill is stored. Searches were ineffectual in this connection the assumption of diffusion of this process appeared. The memorable trace is mediated by functioning of extensive sites of a brain, but any of them in itself is not critically necessary for implementation of function P. In case of injury of a brain direct ratio of extent of disturbance of P. of a damage rate of a brain is revealed. It is necessary to consider, however, that P. is not the process equally connected with all with lastyam of a brain. P.'s disturbances at the person differ depending on localization of damages of a brain.

There is a number of forms of local damage of a brain (e.g., in cases of the deep tumors breaking functioning of limbic system), at to-rykh a neuropsychological research P. it appears one of the few ways of identification of the struck structures. Experimental and the wedge, data allow to allocate the structures which are selectively involved in function of storage and reproduction of traces of experience. So, the bilateral resection of a hippocampus makes impossible transfer of traces of new experience in long-term P.; damage of frontal lobes of big cerebral hemispheres specifically breaks ability of any management of function P., but does not interfere with uncontrolled, passive imprinting and reproduction («emerging») of memorable traces; damage of temporal areas of bark is followed by characteristic disturbances of the correct sequence of reproduction of memorable traces.


Dysmnesias — disturbances of storing (fixing), storage (retention) and reproduction (reproduction) of the facts of surrounding life and personal experience. When only these functions are broken, speak about quantitative dysmnesias; in cases of a combination of frustration of P. to false memoirs, mixing past and present, real and imagined it is about qualitative dysmnesias, or paramnesias (see).

Quantitative disturbances of P. divide into amnesia, hypermnesias and hypomnesias.

Amnesia is expressed in impossibility of reproduction of last skills (see. Amnesia ).

Hypermnesias — P.'s aggravation — are shown in the form of flow of memoirs and excessive increase in their number. Memoirs have sensual and figurative character, cover both an event, and its separate details. Arise in the form of scenes, is more often in a varying degree than chaotic; more rare — connected by one difficult line. Considerably ability to abstract thinking falls. The expressed hypermnesia involves emergence of a mentism (see. Kandinsky — Klerambo a syndrome ), jumps of the ideas (see. Maniacal syndromes ), clear incoherence and disturbance of thinking. Hypermnesias are often observed at hypomaniacal and maniacal states, in initial otadiya of intoxication (alcohol, hashish, etc.), in a prodrome of such psychoses as expansive general paralysis (see), at schizophrenia (see), is able hypnosis (see) etc.

The hypomnesia — this or that extent of weakening of P. — is most often shown in the form of a dysmnesia — uneven defeat of various functions of memory (first of all retention and reproductions). In practical psychiatry use the term «dysmnesia» more often, but not «hypomnesia». At a hypomnesia P. on current events quite often is considerably broken that can be combined also with anamnestic frustration — first of all with the initial progressing and fixating amnesia (see. Amnesia ). P.'s frustration happens in a certain sequence. In the beginning are lost the freshest (are forgotten), recently acquired and less fixed facts (events); earlier acquired, strongly fixed (especially automated), and also emotionally charged is exposed to loss it (is forgotten) later and to a lesser extent (Ribot's law). Early symptom is disturbance of a selective reproduction — impossibility of reminiscence of any facts necessary exactly at present though later these facts recur to the memory even in itself.

First of all memory on names, dates, terms suffers. Orientation in time worsens, at the same time often remember this or that fact better, but cannot date it precisely or correlate in the sequence to other facts of the same period. Worsens and can completely be broken ability to have the facts in the chronological sequence.

At heavier gipomnestiche-sky frustration the separate periods concerning private and public life to some extent drop out of P. At the same time never such devastations of stocks of memory as it happens at the progressing amnesia are observed.

Dysmnesias are observed at all organic diseases of c. N of page also represent a cardinal sign psychoorganic syndrome (see). More, especially in the form of heavy dysmnesias, the fixating and progressing amnesia, they are inherent to organic diseases of late age (vascular, neurosis tardas), and also any organic diseases for the first time arising in this age period.

P.'s frustration caused by various organic diseases need to be distinguished from externally similar, but reversible frustration arising against the background of various psychopathological disturbances (an adynamy, a depression, crazy states etc.).

The clear and (or) accruing in the intensity P.'s frustration — the evidence of weighting of a mental disease, i.e. predictively an adverse symptom. Their regress (at traumatic defeats of c. and. page, alcoholic psychoses, etc.) — the evidence of reduction of intensity of the organic factor which is the cornerstone of a disease.

Treatment of dysmnesias is directed to a basic disease.

See also Perception , Thinking , Feeling .

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H. Yu. Belenkov, E. I. Popova; O. P. Vertogradova, A. S. Tygans, E. Ya. Shternberg, N. G. Noise cue (pathology).