From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MEDICOCHIRURGICAL SCHOOLS — the highest medical educational institutions existing in Russia at the end of 18 century and training doctors for army, navy and civil service. M - x. at. reorganization resulted hospital schools (see) in 1786 also were under authority medical board (see).

Three M. were created - x. at. — Moscow, St. Petersburg and Kronstadt. Existing since 1783 in St. Petersburg Kalinkinskoye M. - x. at., teaching in Krom was conducted on it. language, it was liquidated in 1802, without having played an essential role in development of medical science and education in Russia; pupils were transferred to medicochirurgical academy (see. Army medical college ).

Since 1788 M. began to function - x. at. at Elizavetgradsky military hospital for replenishment by doctors of the army operating on the Russian-Turkish front. In 1797 it was closed, pupils are distributed according to other M. - x. at.

The St. Petersburg and Moscow M. - x. at. at the end of 1798 were transformed to medicochirurgical academies, and Kronstadt it is abolished in 1799. A big role in the organization M. - x. at. played the offers developed by A. M. Shumlyansky and M. M. Terekhovsky. M. pupils - x. at., unlike pupils of hospital schools, were exempted from direct medical service of patients, and the faculty — from performance of administrative obligations for hospitals. Work in would have character of the practical clinical training supplementing a theoretical course. In M. - x. at. in comparison with hospital schools there were considerably expanded programmes of teaching and the curriculum is changed, the departments headed by professors are founded.

Each school had three departments: 1) anatomy, physiology and surgery; 2) pathologies, therapies and medical practicians; 3) botanists, materia medica (pharmaceutical science) and chemistry. There were courses of drawing and Latin. In 1787 in all M. - x. at. the fourth department — obstetrics, female and children's diseases was organized, and since 1793 teaching mathematics and physics is entered.

Pupils in schools were taken by hl. obr. from pupils of theological seminaries; after two years of training it gave the rank of the subdoctor, and upon termination of a full course of training (7 years) — the doctor.

In view of a shortcoming of doctors also earlier examination for receiving the established medical ranks was allowed.

In 1795 developed was approved S. S. Andreevsky and Ya. O. Sapolovich «The preliminary resolution on the positions learning and studying» according to Krom established the five-year term of training. On the first three courses the mathematics, physics, chemistry, botany, anatomy, physiology, materia medica, a compounding, pathology, therapy, surgery and a section course were studied. The termination granted them the right for a rank of the subdoctor. On the fourth year the surgery and obstetrics were studied. After examination of the fourth year by the pupil the rank of the candidate of surgery was given. On the fifth year of training pupils were obliged to perform four large operations on a corpse and to prepare two anatomic drugs, besides, pupils were on duty in clinical chamber, conducted patients, had under observation of pupils of the third year of training, the case histories made independently submited professor. Upon termination of a full course to graduates the rank was given doctor (see).

The greatest significance was attached to visualization of training. So, professor of chemistry and botany was recommended «to make before eyes of their pupils of action on experiences about which spoke before that in words»; to professor of physiology — «to explain physiology in all its detail which not only must be followed by words, but performing physiological experiences over the live cattle». Professors were elected by «scientific meeting»; the candidate for a position of professor was obliged to present original scientific work, to give a trial lecture in Russian and to answer questions on the specialty. For preparation for a professorial position at departments positions of the graduated in a military academy were established.

System of training of doctors in the Russian M. - x. at. favourably differed from the medical education accepted at that time in the majority of the countries of Western Europe. Schools had dissecting rooms, physical and chemical laboratories, medical libraries; teaching clinical disciplines was carried out on the basis of large hospitals. The wide versatile program of theoretical courses, a pronounced clinical method of teaching the main medical disciplines, continuation of materialistic traditions of M. V. Lomonosov and his pupils — all this provided a high level of training of the Russian doctors. At the same time in M. - x. at. it was used as well positive experience of works of foreign medical schools (The Leiden and Strasbourg high fur boots, the Parisian surgical academy, etc.).

Among professors M. is x. at. there were largest Russian clinical physicians; H. M. Ambodik-Maksimovich, G. I. Bazilevich (1759 — 1802), N. K. Karpinsky, Ya. O. Sapolovich (1766 — 1830), F. T. Tikhorsky (1733—1814), A. I. Fedorovsky, A. M. Shumlyansky, etc.; botanists and pharmacologists G. F. Sobolevsky (1741 — 1807) and M. M. Terekhovsky; chemist of B. M. Severgin (1765 — 1826), etc.

H. M. Ambodiky-Maksimovich, N. K. Karpinsky, M. M. Terekhovsky, etc. created original manuals in Russian.

From among M. graduates - x. at. became known as outstanding scientists P. A. Zagorski, E. O. Mukhin, I. A. and T. A. Smelovskiye, etc.

See also Meditsina , Medical education .

Bibliography: History of the Moscow military hospital, sost. A. N. Alelekov and N. I. Yakimov, M., 1907; P and l to and N V. N. The first medical school in Ukraine, the Doctor, business, No. 1, Art. 81, 1953; it, Hand-written scientific works of the Russian doctors of the 18th century, Zdravookhr. Kazakhstan, No. 8, page 37, 1953; about N e, the Russian hospital schools of the 18th century and their pupils, M., 1959; H and with t about in and the p Ya. A. Istoriya of the first medical schools in Russia, SPb., 1883.

B. N. Palkin.