MEDICINAL PLANTS

From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MEDICINAL PLANTS — the plants which are a source of receiving medicinal raw materials and pharmaceuticals of a natural origin.

History

Primitive breeds, mastering flora in habitals, plant louses of found useful plants (food, etc.), and including the plants having curative or poisonous properties. Sources pharmacognosies (see) — sciences about L. rubles — originate in an extreme antiquity. In 3000 years BC in Ancient China along with substances of an animal and mineral origin many L were used. river. In the ancient medical book of India «Ayurveda» («Science about life») the doctor Sushruta (6 — 5 century BC) described St. 700 L. river; many of these L. rubles are mentioned also in the book of the Tibetan medicine of Ju-Dzhi («Essence curative»). The ancient people of Near Sostok (shumer, Assyrians, Babylonians) also accumulated considerable knowledge of L. river what the cuneiform texts which reached us confirm. Large volume of data on L. the ruble contains in Ancient Greek written monuments. So, e.g., Hippocrates applied St. 230 medicinal plants; several hundred L. Teofrast knew to river; Dioskorid (1 century AD) described apprx. 400 medicinal plants. St. 300 pharmaceuticals of a plant origin are mentioned in K. Galen's compositions. During an era of blossoming of medicine and pharmacy in the countries of the Arab caliphate (9 — 11 centuries) L. rubles were used also widely about what, in particular, it is possible to judge by books of the Central Asian scientists Ibn-Sina (Avicenna) and Abu-Reykhana al-Beruni (973 — 1048) in which many hundreds of L are described. river. In the beginning range of L. the ruble in various countries developed preferential depending on climatic conditions and structure of a native flora. But a measure of expansion of communication between the people, development of commercial relations and travel exchange of L began to be carried out. river between various countries. This circumstance was, e.g., of great importance for expansion of the range of L. the river of the European medicine and pharmacy borrowing many L. river of a tropical and subtropical origin.

The people in the ancient time inhabiting the territory of the USSR also used many types of L. river from time immemorial, centuries accumulating data about them to lay down. properties and transferring these data from generation to generation izustno. Collecting and use of L. rubles were carried out by sorcerers, witch doctors, shamans, tabiba, etc. After the Christianization of Kievan Rus' (988) collecting L. clergymen, hl were engaged in river and treatment in them. obr. monks who with the advent of writing made the monastic compositions (breviaries, obikhodnik, etc.) including data on L. river. Rudiments of domestic literature on L. rubles are considered the ancient hand-written books known under names — herbalists, zeleynik, doctor books, vertograda, etc., e.g. "Cool vertograd" (1672), the main section to-rogo is called «About overseas and Russian potions and about drevesa and herbs».

Collecting L. rubles in Russia were engaged pomyasa — specialists of this business.

Besides, preparations of L practiced. river through voivodes as a natural duty. Trade of L. the river concentrated in «zeleyny» benches which owners practiced also purchase of L. river abroad. So, e.g., in Ancient Russia the numerous «potions» imported from Asia Minor, Egypt, Ethiopia and other countries were familiar.

Up to 17 century in the main way of receiving L. the ruble in Russia was collecting wild plants. At Peter I along with it the foundation was laid for cultivation of medicinal plants. For this purpose in Russia (in St. Petersburg, Moscow, Poltava and other cities) were developed so-called. pharmaceutical kitchen gardens (see), reorganized later into so-called medical gardens. To studying and development of domestic L. the river was promoted by the numerous expeditions organized by academy of Sciences. So, e.g., the academician P. S. of Pallas (1741 — 1811) but to materials of an expedition to Western and Eastern Siberia, Zavolzhye and some other districts made «The description of plants of the Russian state with their images», in Krom there are many data on domestic L. river. Valuable materials about L. rubles from domestic flora contain in I. I. Lepyokhin (1740 — 1802) composition «The diary of notes of the doctor of Academy of Sciences, the graduated in a military academy Ivan Lepyokhin on different provinces of the Russian state in 1768 — 1772».

Activity of the St. Petersburg academy a spider in the field of cultivation of L. the river extended also to medical gardens which work members of academy, e.g. M. M. Terekhovsky who made the catalog of 1406 plants growing in the St. Petersburg medical garden in 1796 directed, G.F. Sobolevsky is the author of «The St. Petersburg flora» and professor of botany and pharmacology of Medicochirurgical academy Ya. V. Petrov. In 1783 — 1789 N. M. Ambodiky-Maksimovich the multivolume management about medicinal plants «Medical veshchestvoslovy, or the description of salutary plants» was created. In 1829 — 1834 professor Moscow un-that I. A. Dvigubsky publishes the capital work «The Image of Plants, Preferential Russian, Used in Drugs, and Such Which an Exterior Are Similar to Them and Often Are Accepted to Them, but Have No Medicinal Force» in 4 parts which is essentially the first domestic atlas of L. river. I. Kashinsky's work «The Russian medical herbalist is original...» in 3 parts. The valuable report on L. the river is «The botanical dictionary, or the Collection of names of both Russian, and many foreign plants in languages Russian, German, French, etc., used by various tribes living in Russia», made by N. I. Annenkov (1859).

Due to the expansion in Europe and in Russia of researches on studying of chemical structure of L. rubles began to be brought the most versatile data on them in works of representatives of classical pharmaceutical science — a pharmacognosy. The textbook on Yu. K. Trapp's pharmacognosy (1858) is among such sources. Encyclopedic data on L. rubles are brought together in the two-volume textbook of a pharmacognosy of professor Moscow un-that V. A. Tikhomirova (1888 — 1890). The big heritage was left behind by Yuryevsky's professor (nowadays Tartu) un-that I. G. Dragendorff in the form of the «Medicinal Plants of the Different People and Times, Their Use, the Major Chemicals and History» (1898) reference guide, data approximately about 12 thousand types of medicinal plants are provided to Krom. Did not lose the value and work of professor of Army medical college V. K. Varlikh «The Russian medicinal plants. Atlas and botanical description» (1899 — 1901).

Huge work of domestic scientists on studying of L. the ruble in imperial Russia pe found applications for needs of public health care and development pharm, the industries on the basis of use of vegetable riches. Attempts of state regulation of collecting L. rubles through state drugstores and pharmaceutical bodies gradually stopped. In 19 century trade completely passed to private owners of the drugstores and pharmaceutical firms which were engaged in mass collecting medicinal raw materials, a cut they generally took out abroad, and import of foreign. In the Caucasus and in Central Asia English and an amer. firms injuriously operated thickets of a glycyrrhiza, taking out annually more than 10 thousand m of a licorice root. Unique thickets of a wormseed wormwood in Turkestan also went for enrichment of foreign businessmen. The crude santonin produced in Chimkent completely was taken out abroad again to come to Russia in the form of pure drug under the name of one of the German firms.

World War I found imperial Russia army, unprepared to providing, and the population of the country with medicines and including medicinal plants. Termination of import of L. river at sharply increased need for them was the cause of statement and the solution of a question of preparations of domestic L. river. In 1915 the Interdepartmental meeting on the issue of improvement of production in Russia of medicinal plants, and in February, 1916 — a special meeting on culture and collecting L took place. river and organizations of their use and sale. This period is characterized by active participation of the most visible scientists in studying and mobilization of medicinal vegetable resources of the country. The academician V. L. Komarov writes the reference book «Collecting, Drying and Cultivation of Medicinal Plants in Russia» (1915), F. A. Satsyperov publishes the book «Medicinal Plants in Russia» (1917). In drawing up books, brochures and leaflets on L. rubles take part also N. A. Monteverde, V. N. Lyubimenko, V. V. Pashkevich, etc.

Great October socialist revolution radically changed a condition of case on studying and use of L. river in our country. The problem of medicinal vegetable raw materials became a part of a nation-wide problem of providing with raw materials of the industry of the country, the national economy in general. It was obvious that limited quantity of types of L. the river, applied in scientific medicine of imperial Russia, was in explicit discrepancy with huge richness of domestic flora and with that mass of plants which were used for to lay down. purposes in traditional medicine. In this regard in the first years of the Soviet power a number of the actions aimed at providing rational use of L was held. river for the benefit of health protection of the people and on development of domestic medicinal crop production. So, in December, 1921 the decree of Council of People's Commissars about collecting and culture of medicinal plants was issued, and in May, 1925 the I All-Union meeting on medicinal and technical plants and medicinal raw materials at the State Planning Committee of the USSR took place, on Krom questions of coordination of preparations and export of medicinal raw materials were discussed. In 1929 the Lektekhsyrye All-union association was created, to-rogo went all resources L into the disposal. river in the country. For production of many major types of raw materials (a valerian root, a pharmaceutical camomile, leaves of a belladonna, etc.) the network of specialized state farms was developed in the country and contractings of L are organized. river in the collective-farm sector. In 1934 for Lektekhsyryem only export functions were left, and production and procuring functions were transferred to the jurisdiction Narkomzdrava and Tsentrosoyuz.

Along with the solution of organizational issues there was implementation of scientific programs in the field of studying and development of L. river. A lot of work in this area carried out All-Union research chemical and pharmaceutical in-t of S. Ordzhonikidze (VNIHFI) where under the leadership of the academician. And. By the item Orekhovo it was inspected apprx. 1300 medicinal plants and from them 129 alkaloids are emitted, many of which are implemented in medical practice. Since 30th, active scientific research on L. rubles are carried out by departments of a pharmacognosy pharm, in-comrade.

At the same time for studying of L. river in different zones of the country (e.g., in the cities of Lubny, Mogilev, Sukhumi, etc.) special experimental stations which after the organization in 1931 are created. All-Union research in-that medicinal and aromatic plants (VILAR, nowadays VILR) turn into its maintaining. From the moment of the organization in-that in it, and also at its zone experimental stations and strong points versatile researches on identification of valuable types of L are conducted. river from structure of flora of the USSR, to input of L. river in culture and to receiving pharmaceuticals of a plant origin. Till 1941 a lot of work on the wild-growing and cultivated L. ruble it was carried out All-Union in-volume of crop production (VIR), organized in 1922 on the basis of the Bureau of applied botany functioning before Great October socialist revolution. As a result by 1941 the main practical and scientific problems of creation, strengthening and development of a vegetable source of raw materials taking into account the needs for L were solved. river of the industry, pharmacy chain and export.

In days of the Great Patriotic War in connection with temporary loss of important districts on preparation of the wild-growing and cultivated L. the river in the territory of the European part of the USSR arose need of immediate and wide use of flora of Siberia, the Far East, the Transcaucasian and Central Asian republics and Kazakhstan. Collecting L. the ruble in days of the Great Patriotic War became business of defense value. Thanks to the efficient help from governmental bodies, party and public organizations, and also thanks to participation in collecting L. the river of a general population this problem was successfully solved.

The terminations of the Great Patriotic War of decade which took place later are characterized by continuously growing requirement domestic pharm, the industries, pharmacy chain and the export organizations in L. river in this connection the volume of preparations of vegetable raw materials continuously increases. So, e.g., in 1970 — 1975 on average annual preparation of medicinal raw materials made 39 thousand tons, including 22 thousand tons were the share of wild-growing and 17 thousand tons on the cultivated plants. The nomenclature of the made types of L. the river reached 150 names; apprx. 75% of this quantity make wild-growing L. river. The general leadership in planning of the volume and the nomenclature of preparations, and also operational management of preparations cultivated and a considerable part of wild-growing raw materials is assigned by a pas All-union association on production, preparation and processing of medicinal plants Min-va (Soyuzlekarsprom) of the medical industry. Main suppliers of L. rubles are also Tsentrokooplektekhsyrye office of Tsentrosoyuz and the head pharmaceutical departments of min.-va health care of federal republics. Other departments also are involved in preparations of wild-growing medicinal raw materials.

Scientific research in the field of studying of medicinal plants

Scientific research in the field of studying of L. rubles in sovr, conditions are actively led to VILR, Kharkiv research chemical and pharmaceutical in-that, Ying-that pharmacochemistry of AN of the Georgian SSR, Botanical in-that Academy of Sciences of the USSR, academies of Sciences of federal republics and at the relevant departments medical and pharm, higher education institutions.

In the researches conducted by the Soviet scientists but to identification of almost valuable L. river, three main directions developed. One of them — studying and use of experience traditional medicine (see). Manifestation of due consideration to data of traditional medicine can affect essentially a pas efficiency of searches of plants, perspective for scientific medicine. The initial stages of studying of experience of traditional medicine is carrying out special or use passing (ethnographic, etc.) expeditions for collecting data by poll of the population, experts on local plants, acquisition of samples, etc., and also the organization of correspondent network. From abundance of collected information select the objects which are of the greatest interest. If primary pharmacological (or biological) search confirms reliability of data national: medicine, in this case continues further studying of L. river: phytochemical, technological (release of separate substances or creation of total drugs), pharmacological, toxicological and, at last, clinical.

Other direction on identification of L. the river is the mass field (reconnoitring) photochemical analysis of a pas the main biologically active agents of all species of plants of a certain area or district without the choice (or with the partial choice). At the same time it is supposed that among such consistently analyzed, as if «sifted through an analytical sieve», plants the types containing pharmacological active agents will come to light.

At last, searches of new L. rubles are carried out also by the principle of phylogenetic relationship, i.e. proceeding from the fact that botanical related plants can possess similar or close chemical structure and consequently, can show similar pharmakol, action. Knowledge of these biol, patterns does search of L. river purposeful and the most effective. Using the phylogenetic principle, study species of plants, the next to accepted as official L. river. As a result of such researches species composition already by many important types of L is expanded. river (adonis, lily of the valley, erysimum, etc.). Phylogenetic patterns induce to be returned in increasing frequency to the so-called forgotten plants which chemical structure was not established because of insufficiency of knowledge of chemistry of natural substances and imperfection of phytochemical methods of a research in due time. Again conducted purposeful photochemical researches allowed to enter a number of the «forgotten» plants into medical practice (e.g., a fumitory, a rest-harrow, a milkwort, a periwinkle, etc.). For the same reasons in some cases are returned to deeper studying of the plants which are already used in scientific medicine. The similar audit which is carried out on sovr scientific level, considerably expanded the field of medical use of many shirokoizvestny L. river

Preparation

Preparation of L. the river is the process covering a number of operations: collecting, roughing-out, drying, reduction in ground state, packaging and storage.

Preparation of wild-growing L. the river of a pas its first stage is «small-scale» production as plants are collected by certain collectors in rather small amounts. Only after receipt of L. rubles are going to place of acceptance or a warehouse large batches of raw materials that allows to mechanize their processing. In state farms of Soyuzlekarsprom All-union association and on kontraktatsionny landings of L. the river in collective farms procuring process allows mechanization at all its stages.

Collecting raw parts L. the ruble is led to such periods of vegetation when in plants the maximum quantities pharmacological of active agents collect. Optimum terms of collecting raw materials are established on the basis of studying of ontogenesis of L. river. The specific calendar of collecting varies depending on a geographical zone of the country and features of L. river.

Roughing-out of raw materials consists in elimination of shortcomings of collecting, removal of the got impurity and defective parts of a plant and preparation of raw materials for drying. Specific operations but cleaning depend on features of L. rubles E.g., at a grass can be cut the lower aphyllous lignified parts. From underground parts of plants the earth carefully is removed. Tubers of a salep for a short time immerse in boiled water to prevent their germination.

The raw materials which underwent roughing-out are exposed to drying. Drying of plants as a specific method of their conservation — difficult biol, process. During the first period in bodies of collected plants fiziol, processes proceed quite normally and biosynthesis of substances still prevails over their disintegration. But later a nek-swarm time the termination of inflow of nutrients changes the direction biol, reactions thus that disintegration of substances begins to prevail over their synthesis with the increasing speed. Process of «hungry exchange» when reserves of plants in the form of starch, hemicelluloses and reserve forms of proteins are mobilized begins. If this process is followed by thermal impact on cells of a plant, there will come the strengthened return of cellular moisture to the environment that will lead to dying off of cells. In close connection with dynamics of water deficit there is an activity of enzymes of plants. The drying temperature is lower, the cellular moisture is given more slowly and the more actively enzymatic processes proceed. At slow dying off of cells the content of biologically active agents in different L. the river changes unequally. At the same time the content of active agents in a row L. the river can increase, e.g. at some essential oil-bearing plants and at the plants inclined to formation of biogenic stimulators. In other L. the river occurs reduction of content of biologically active agents owing to their destruction. The glycosides, alkaloids (which are especially esters) and some other are among such unstable substances. It is obvious that for preservation of active agents in L. the river is necessary bystry drying of raw materials, at a cut the destroying effect of enzymes is expressed slightly. As temperature strongly affects quality of raw materials, at a cut drying, proceeding from a structure of raw materials, its chemical structure and degree of stability of active ingredients is carried out, this or that method of drying of raw materials is chosen (air or thermal, solar or shadow, bystry or slow).

After drying medicinal raw materials are brought to ground state, i.e. to requirements of standards (GOST, GF, temporary pharmacopoeian articles, or VFS) on purity and uniformity conforming that is reached by different sorting operations. Among them are the major: purification of raw materials of unnecessary, mistakenly collected parts of the making plant; removal defective (decayed, mouldy, etc.) and the parts of a plant which lost natural color; removal of excessively crushed parts; purification of raw materials of foreign organic and mineral impurity. Very often at reduction of raw materials all operations go to ground state at the same time that is the most economic.

Packaging and storage of medicinal raw materials are carried out according to its look and properties. The general rules of packaging of medicinal raw materials are regulated by GOST 6077 — 74. For packaging of raw materials use hl. obr. three types of a container: bags (fabric unary or double and two-layer of a kraft paper), piles and plywood boxes. Medicinal raw materials are subject to storage in specially equipped warehouse which shall be dry, ventilated, allowing if necessary carrying out gas disinsection and to have operational floors, walls, doors and windows.

Medical action

Lech. action of L. river it is caused by the active agents which are contained in them pharmacological being products of biosynthesis. Are among such substances alkaloids (see), different types glycosides (see), saponins of the triterpenovy and steroid nature (see. Saponins ) and other connections. Many L. rubles contain various phenolic connections (lignana, coumarins and furocoumarins, chromones, flavonoids, tanning agents, etc.). Special group pharmacological active agents L. rubles are essential oils (see), their components, pitches and other connections.

Some plants accumulate significant amounts organic to - t, mucous, bitter and other active agents. Pharmacological can be active substance and the main (primary) synthesis of L. river — proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, vitamins. Pharmacological the active agents synthesized by L. rubles, can have strong and even poisonous action on a human body. Such substances, as well as the plants making them, join in lists of strong or toxic agents — see articles And (list of toxic agents) and B (list of strong substances) . Treatment of L. river, as well as all other pharmaceuticals, it has to be carried out only on doctor's orders. Trade of L. the river in the markets, markets and other ways, except drugstores, is prohibited by the law.

L. rubles in medicine use hl. obr. as raw materials for receiving medicines (see. Medicinal raw materials ). In some cases L. rubles are a source of receiving substances which use as initial products in the course of synthesis or semi-synthesis pharmaceuticals (see).

From L. rubles receive two types of products: 1) the drugs representing the raw products received as a result of their spontaneous or forced allocation by plants, and also received as a result of primary processing of medicinal plants; 2) the drugs containing pharmacological active agents which allocate from a plant in the extraction way.

Natural latexes (opium, rubber), gum, essential oils, pitches, balms (solutions of pitches in essential oils, napr, gallipot), gum-pitch (e.g., assafetida), fatty oils and dense seed fats (cocoa oil, coconut fat) concern to the first group. The listed products can be applied as independent medicines (opium, mint essential oil, etc.) or to serve as a feed stock for receiving individual medicines (e.g., menthol and p-propenyl anisole from the corresponding essential oils.

Carry the drugs which are active agents individual pharmacological and drugs of total structure to the second group. Domestic chemical фармaцевтическая industry (see) releases a large amount of the drugs which are individual substances — alkaloids, various glycosides, including cardiac glycosides, cyanogenetic glycosides and thioglycosides, saponins, coumarins and furocoumarins, flavonoids. vitamins, etc. Drugs of total structure contain complexes of substances of any L. river. Among them distinguish galenova and novogalenova drugs. (Tinctures, extracts, fragrant waters, syrups, etc.) pharmacological active agents are in galenovy drugs in combination with others, accompanying ve

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1. Monk's-hood Dzungarian: 1 — korneklubn with the bottom of a stalk; 2 — an upper part of bloomer. 2. Ammi tooth: the blossoming top of a plant. 3. Aralia manchzhursky: i \a part of a stalk with leaves; 2 — a compound fruit; 3 — a flower. 4. Arnica mountain: bloomer. 5. Bergenia tolstolistny: bloomer. 6. Autumn crocus magnificent: bloomer with a corm. 7. Immortelle sandy: bloomer. 8. Watch trilistny: bloomer. 9. Mountaineer snake: 1 — the bottom of a plant; 2 — an upper part of bloomer. 10. Gentian yellow: 1 — a middle part of a stalk; 2 — an upper part of bloomer. 11. Inula high: 1 — an upper part of bloomer; 2 — a radical leaf; 3 — a rhizome with roots. 12. Chinese yam nipponsky: 1 — a part of escape with female inflorescences; 2 — a part of escape with men's inflorescences; 3 — a part of a rhizome with roots and kidneys.
13. Dope: 1 — a branch with flowers; 2 — a fruit. 14. Erysimum gray: top of bloomer. 15. The intoxicant lagochylus intoxicating: bloomer. 16. The St. John's Wort which is made a hole: upper part of bloomer. 17. Centaury umbrella: upper part of bloomer. 18. Dogbane hemp: top of bloomer. 19. Krestovik flat-leaved: 1 — an upper part of bloomer; 2 — a rhizome with the bottom of a stalk. 20. Burnet medicinal: a top of bloomer and a rhizome with radical leaves. 21. Cinquefoil upright: 1 — an upper part of bloomer; 2 — a rhizome. 22. Levzey saflorovidny: 1 — a top of bloomer; 2 — a rhizome with roots. 23. Moonseed of daurskiya: 1 — a plant in a phase of blossoming; 2 — a rhizome with roots; 3 — fruits. 24. Magnolia vine Chinese: i \branch of bloomer; 2 — mature fruits.
25. Madder tinctorial: 1 — a part of a fruit-bearing plant; 2 — a rhizome. 26. Globe-thistle ordinary: 1 — a leaf; 2 — an upper part of bloomer. 27. Hellebore Caucasian: 1 — a leaf; 2 — a rhizome; 3 — an upper part of a plant. 28. Sea-buckthorn krushinovy: 1 — the blossoming branch; 2 — a branch with fruits. 29. Obvoynik Greek: 1 — a branch of bloomer; 2 — a fruit. 30. Pizhma ordinary: top of bloomer. 31. May-apple thyroid: 1 — a part of bloomer; 2 — a fruit; 3 — a rhizome. 32. Voronov's snowdrop: bloomer. 33. Renal tea: top of bloomer. 34. Rauwolfia snake: top of bloomer. 35. Rhodiola pink (gold root): bloomer. 36. Sekurinega semi-shrubby: 1 — a branch with pistillate plants flowers and crude fruits; 2 — a branch with staminate flowers. 37. Jacob's ladder blue: 1 — an upper part of bloomer; 2 — a rhizome with roots.
38. Scopolia karnioliysky: top of bloomer. 39. Licorice naked: 1 — an upper part of bloomer; 2 — a brush with fruits. 40. Richter's solyanka: branch of a fruit-bearing plant. 41. Sophora tolstoplodny: 1 — an upper part of bloomer; 2 — a branch with fruits. 42. Stefanie smooth: the blossoming branch. 43. Sferofiza solonetzic: 1 — an upper part of bloomer; 2 — a rhizome. 44. Sage medicinal: 1 — a stalk with leaves; 2 — a top of bloomer. 45. Skullcap Baikal: top of bloomer. 46. Eleuterokokk prickly: a top with fruits. 47. Ephedra hvoshchevy: 1 — a branch of the blossoming men's plant; 2 — fruits (galberries). 48. Orchis spotty: 1 — an upper part of bloomer; 2 — the bottom of a plant from a korneklubnyama. 49. Rain orchid two-leaved: 1 — an upper part of bloomer; 2 — the bottom of bloomer from a korneklubnyama.

rokolistvenny and deciduous spruce forests in a midland of the European part of the USSR, in Western Siberia, in the Caucasus and in the Crimea. The linden flat-leaved grows wildly only in the Carpathians. Both types of a linden widely cultivate in many gardens and parks. Flowers of a linden contain essential oil, mucous substances, a flavonovy glycoside hesperidin, tanning agents, and also the glycoside possessing sudorific action. Essential oil has the thinnest smell caused by presence at it of aliphatic sesquiterpenic alcohol of farnesol. Flowers of a linden are a part of sudorific and emollient collecting.

Lobelia puffy (Lobelia inflata L.) — annual plant this. lobeliyevy (Lobeliaceae) up to 70 cm high. In a wild look grows in North America. In the USSR it is cultivated in Krasnodar Krai, the Voronezh and Moscow Region. All parts of a plant contain the sum of alkaloids (from 0,15 to 0,6%) of a metilpiperidinovy row. The main alkaloids are lobeline, lobelanin and lobelanidin. The grass of a lobelia is used as raw materials for receiving lobeline (see).

Onion (Allium sulfur L.) — perennial bulbous plant this. lily family (Liliaceae). The homeland — Southwest Asia; it is widely cultivated in the different countries. Bulbs contain essential oil (0,01 — 0,05%), sugar, inulin, phytin, nitrogenous substances, redoxons, and carotinoids, flavonoids. Leaves («green onions») contain essential oil, sugar, redoxons, In, and carotinoids, lemon and apple to - you. Drugs of onions have properties phytoncidal drugs (see). From bulbs and during the summer period from «green» onions prepare the liquid alcoholic extract known under the name «allilchep», to-ruyu apply at an atony of intestines, ponosa, hypo - and avitaminosis; this drug is offered also for treatment of atherosclerosis.

A moonseed of daurskiya, or the Amur ivy (Menispermum dahuricum DC) — a forb with curling, as at lianas, grassy escapes (color. this fig. 23). lunosemyannikovy (Menispermaceae). Grows in Primorsky Krai, in the south of Khabarovsk Krai and in Transbaikalia in coastal thickets on coast of the rivers. Stalks contain alkaloids (to 1%). In rhizomes and roots the main alkaloid is dauricine, and in stalks — sinomenine. Drugs from rhizomes with roots (tincture and infusions) containing hl. obr. dauricine, possess the calming and hypotensive action. Sinomenine possesses same pharmakol. action, but, besides, renders febrifugal effect and accelerates a lymphokinesis.

Poppy somnolent (Papaver somniferum L.) — the annual cultivated herbaceous plant this. poppy (Papaveraceae); in a wild look does not meet. Numerous cultural kinds (grades) of poppy divide into two groups: oily and opium. Blue poppies differ in undeveloped system of narrow mlechnik; they are cultivated for receiving the seeds used in food and for release of alkaloids from mature boxes after their thrashing from seeds. Opium grades of poppy have the developed system of the wide mlechnik giving the plentiful expiration of natural latex. These grades cultivate for receiving opium (see). In the past in the USSR opium poppy was cultivated as raw materials for receiving opium, its drugs and alkaloids. However social danger of broad culture of this plant demanded research of other raw materials for receiving morphine and other alkaloids of this group. The «fulfilled» dry boxes of oily grades of poppy which contain about 0,6% were such suitable raw materials morphine (see). Thus, now blue poppies are manufactured in the USSR only. Opium grades of poppies in the country are not cultivated.

Raspberry ordinary (Rubus idaeus L.) — forb this. rose family (Rosaceae). Grows in a forest zone of the European part of the USSR, in the Caucasus, in mountains of Central Asia and in Siberia, reaching on the East Baikal. Fruits of wild-growing raspberry contain lemon and apple to - you (to 2%), a little salicylic to - you, more than 10% of sugars, are a little redoxon, vitamins of group B and carotinoids, pectic substances. From fresh berries of raspberry prepare the syrup applied to improvement of taste of drugs. Hot berries infusion has sudorific properties.

The Maraly root — see Levzey saflorovidny.

Madder tinctorial (Rubia tinctorum L.) — perennial herbaceous plant (color. this fig. 25). madder family (Rubiaceae). The homeland — the Mediterranean. In the Caucasus it is replaced with a close look — a madder Georgian (R. tinctorum L., var. R. iberica C. Koch); the madder serdtselistny grows in Transbaikalia (R. cordifolia L.). The madder tinctorial is entered into culture. As medicinal raw materials rhizomes of domestic types of a madder are used: they contain 5 — 6% of oxymethylanthraquinones (mostly in the form of glycosides). The main thing among them is rubieritrinovy to - that, representing alizarine-2-ksilo-zilglikozid. Contain in a rhizome of a madder also organic to - you, sugar and pectic substances. Tablets from dry extract of a root apply at urolithic and cholelithic diseases and at gout. Tincture of a madder is included into complex drug cystenal (see).

Olive European (Olea europaea L.) — evergreen tree this. olive (Oleaceae). The homeland — South vost. part of the Mediterranean. In the USSR it is cultivated in the Crimea, in the Caucasus and in some districts of Central Asia. Pulp of fruits contains about 70% of fatty oil. Salve luccu oil is received from ripe, fleshy, fresh fruits of olive cold molding. It consists hl. obr. from a pure triolein. Apply oil as solvent at preparation of injection solutions of camphor, sex hormones and their analogs and some other drugs. Besides, luccu oil in the form of emulsions appoint inside as enveloping, emollient and gentle purgative.

Coltsfoot (Tussilago farfara L.) — perennial herbaceous plant this. thistle family (Asteraceae). Grows almost on all European part of the USSR, in the Caucasus, in Siberia and in mountains of Central Asia. Collect leaves and flower baskets which contain mucous substances, a glycoside tussilyagin, saponins, carotinoids and ascorbic to - that. As a part of chest and sudorific collecting apply as sudorific and expectorant (see).

Almonds ordinary (Amygdalus communis L.) — small tree this. rose family (Rosaceae). In a wild look grows on Kapet-Dag, in the Western Tien Shan, and also in the south of Azerbaijan and in Armenia. It is cultivated in Central Asia. East Transcaucasia and in the Crimea. The plant meets in two forms, distinguishable only to taste of seeds: almonds bitter (A. communis L. f. amara DC) and almonds sweet (A. communis L. f. dulcis DC). Seeds of both forms contain to 62% of fatty oil, proteic matters, to 3% of sugars, hepatoflavin, enzyme emulsin and other substances. The bitter form, besides, contains 3% of a cyanogenetic glycoside of dl-mandelonitrile gentiobioside. In medicine use the oil received by cold molding (Oleum Amygdalarum). It for 85% consists of monoacid triglyceride olein to - you also are used as solvent for preparation of injection solutions of camphor, sex hormones and their analogs, etc. From cake of seeds receive bitter-almond water.

Juniper ordinary (Juniperus communis L.) — an evergreen bush or a small tree from this. cypress (Cupressaceae). It is widespread in sowing. and middle part of the European territory of the USSR, the Western and partially Eastern Siberia. Berries (juicy cones) of a juniper contain about 2% of essential oil, the main components to-rogo are bicyclic monoterpenes DL pinene, camphene, sabinene and their oxygen derivatives, and also cyclic sequiterpene kadinen; it is a lot of invert sugar (to 40%). Berries of a juniper are a part of diuretic collecting teas.

Globe-thistle ordinary (Echinops ritro L.), globe-thistle sharogolovy (Echinops sphaerocephalus L.) — perennial herbaceous plants (color. this fig. 26). a thistle family (Asteraceae), meeting in a chernozem and forest-steppe zone of the European part of the USSR, Western Siberia and Kazakhstan, in the Caucasus, on stony and shchebenisty slopes, coastal pebbles and sands. Fruits contain hl. obr. alkaloids among which the basic is echinopsine (to 1,5%). Nitrate of echinopsine (see. Ekhinopsin ), like strychnine, apply as a stimulator of c. N of page.

Carrots sowing campaign [Daucus sativus (Hoffm.) Roehl.] — the two-year, widely cultivated plant this. umbrella (Apiaceae). Ripe root crops («roots») containing carotinoids and traces of vitamins are industrial raw materials for receiving drugs carotene (see). From seeds (fruits two-weevils) of carrots produce drug Daucarinum (see), containing the sum of furanokhromon.

Hellebore Caucasian (Helleborus caucasicus A. Br.; synonym: H. guttatus A. Br. et Sauer., H. abchasicus A. Br.), hellebore reddish (Helleborus purpurascens Waldst. et. Kit.) — perennial evergreen herbaceous plants this. crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae). Hellebore Caucasian (color. fig. 27) grows almost in all territory of the Georgian SSR and in southwest districts of Krasnodar Krai, a hellebore reddish — in the Transcarpathian Region in the oak and pikhtoyelovy woods. Roots and rhizomes contain steroid saponins (see). Besides, are allocated cardiac glycosides (see) korelborin-K and Korelborin-item.

A peppermint — see. Mint .

A foxglove — see. Foxglove .

A marigold is medicinal, or a calendula (Calendula officinalis L.) — an annual herbaceous plant this. thistle family (Asteraceae). The homeland — Central and Southern Europe. It is widely cultivated in the different countries. Flower baskets contain carotinoids. Especially there are a lot of carotinoids in bright orange ray florets. From flower baskets of a marigold prepare tincture and ointment which apply at cuts, purulent wounds and ulcers, burns, and tincture, besides, to rinsing of a throat at quinsy.

Obvoynik Greek (Periploca graeca L.) — the curling bush liana this. a milkweed family (Asclepiadaceae) up to 30 m long, climbing up trees (color. fig. 29). In a wild look in the USSR meets only in the Caucasus where grows preferential in the crude valley woods and in seaside alder thickets. Bark contains cardiac glycosides Periplocinum and periplotsimarin.

Sea-buckthorn krushinovy (Hippophae rhamnoides L.) — strongly branchy prickly gonochoristic bush or tree up to 4 — 6 m high this. lokhovy (Elaeagnaceae). Grows most often on river shallows, on sand-and-shingle coast of reservoirs. Big arrays of a sea-buckthorn meet in Transbaikalia, Sayan Mountains, Tuva the ASSR, in Altai, in yuzh. the districts of Kazakhstan, Central Asia, and also in the Caucasus (color. fig. 28). It is entered into culture. Collect fruits (berries) late fall after the first frosts. The ground mass of a fruit is made by a pericarp; stones (seeds) make on weight no more than 10%. In fresh pulp of fruits to 8% of fatty oil, in seeds — to 12%. Fruits of a sea-buckthorn contain a complex of vitamins, various on structure. At fresh berries there are carotinoids (10 mg of % and more), tokoferola (8 — 18 mg of %), ascorbic to - that (to 400 mg of %), connections with P-vitamin activity (to 100 mg of %), a small amount of Bl5 B2, F vitamins, folic to - you and groups K. The maintenance of carotinoids in natural fatty oil of a sea-buckthorn can reach 250 mg of %; oil is also rich with tokoferola. Fruits of a sea-buckthorn use for production of the sea-buckthorn oil (see) received by extraction of dry berries of a sea-buckthorn (after an extraction of juice) sunflower-seed oil, in a cut pass carotinoids, tokoferola and other fat-soluble substances.

Dandelion medicinal (Taraxacum officinale Web.) — perennial herbaceous plant this. a thistle family (Asteraceae), all parts to-rogo contain natural latex. Grows everywhere, except the Arctic and desert districts. Natural latex contains bitter substances of glikozidny character taraksatsin and taraksatserin. From roots triterpenovy connections, and also sterols are allocated. Besides, roots are rich with inulin (to 24%). From roots of a dandelion produce the dense extract applied in quality bitterness (see). The cut-up root is a part of «appetizing» (bitter) and cholagogue collecting.

Oleander ordinary (Nerium oleander L.) — high evergreen bush or small tree this. dogbane family (Apocynaceae). The homeland — the Mediterranean. It is widely cultivated in the Crimea, Georgia and Azerbaijan. All parts of a plant contain cardiac glycosides (see) Oleandrinum, dezatsetil-Oleandrinum and adinerin. Besides, are present at leaves ursolovy to - that, saponins, Rutinum.

The alder is sticky, or black (Alnus glutinosa Gaertn.), alder gray (Alnus incana Moench.) — trees or large bushes this. birch (Betulaceae). The woods and underbrushes from an alder (alder thickets) are widespread in the European part of the USSR and in the Caucasus. The alder cones containing tanning agents including apprx. 2% tannin (see) and to 4% gallic to - you, are a part of the knitting gastric collecting.

A nux vomica — see. Nuxvomica .

An orthosiphon — see. Renal tea .

A sedge Narva (Carex brevicollis DC) — a perennial herbaceous plant this. sedge (Cyperaceae), forming gustodernisty rhizomes. Grows in an interfluve of Dnieper and Dniester. Leaves contain about 0,5% of the alkaloids which are derivatives of Carbolenum; the main alkaloid is brevikollin (see). Brevikollin a hydrochloride is applied as uterine means.

A fern — see. Fern men's .

The passionflower is inkarnatny, or a passionflower meat - red, a cavalry star (Passiflora incarnata L.) — a long-term tropical liana this. strastotsvetny (Passifloraceae). The homeland — tropical Brazil. It is entered into culture in Transcaucasia. Active ingredients of a passionflower are alkaloids harman, harmin and garmol, belonging to derivatives of an indole. The liquid extract prepared from a grass of a passionflower is applied as sedative (see) at a neurasthenia, sleeplessness, hron, alcoholism, climacteric frustration.

Parsnip of a sowing campaign (Pastinaca sativa L.) — widespread garden plant this. umbrella (Apiaceae). The fruits of a parsnip containing furocoumarins use for receiving Pastinacinum (see) and beroksana (see).

Shepherd's bag [Capsella bursa-pastoris (L.) Medic.] — annual herbaceous plant this. a cruciferae family (Cruciferae), the USSR extended in all territory. Contains a significant amount of vitamins of group K, ascorbic to - you and, besides, organic to - you, amines (sincaline, acetylcholine, tyramine, a histamine) and a flavonovy glycoside diosmin. The plant is very rich with salts of potassium. The grass of a shepherd's bag in the form of infusions and liquid extract is applied as uterine means (see) at an atony of a uterus and uterine bleedings.

A bryony — see the Bryony white.

Pepper siliculose one-year (Capsicum annuum L.) — annual herbaceous plant this. solanaceous (Solanaceae). The homeland — Mexico and Guatemala. It is cultivated in the south of Ukraine, in Moldova, in the Caucasus and in Central Asia. Burning taste of a fruit is caused by alkaloid capsaicine which in the greatest number (to 2%) collects in placentas. Fruits contain also essential oil (to 1,5%), carotinoids and ascorbic to - that (to 400 mg of %). As local irritative means outwardly apply slozhnopertsovy linimentum and an adhesive pepper plaster.

Peach ordinary (Persica vulgaris Mill.) — fruit-tree this. rose family (Rosaceae). It is cultivated in the Caucasus, in Central Asia, the Crimea and Moldova. Kernels of seeds contain to 57% of fatty oil and a glycoside dl-mandelonitrile gentiobioside, from to-rogo at hydrolysis essential bitter-almond oil turns out. Fatty oil (Oleum Persicorum) received by cold molding of seeds is applied in pharmaceutical practice to preparation of oil solutions and emulsions.

Pizhma ordinary (Tanacetum vulgare L.) — perennial herbaceous plant (color. this fig. 30). a thistle family (Asteraceae), the USSR growing almost in all territory. Use inflorescences which contain essential oil (to 2%), flavonoids, bitter substances. The main components of essential oil are bicyclic ketones alpha and beta tuyony. Infusions of inflorescences of a tansy have antivermicular activity (at an ascaridosis and an enterobiosis). Inflorescences of a tansy are also a part of cholagogue collecting.

The peony evading or maryin a root (Paeonia anomala L.) — a perennial herbaceous plant this. a crowfoot family (Ranunculaceae), growing in a forest zone sowing. - vost. districts of the European part of the USSR and in Siberia. All parts of a plant contain essential oil (to 1,5%), the main component to-rogo are cineol and methyl salicylate. The alcoholature of a grass and roots has the expressed sedative properties.

Pyrethrum, or insecticidal camomiles: pyrethrum pink, or Caucasian camomile (Pyrethrum roseum Bieb.), pyrethrum meat - red, or the Persian camomile (Pyrethrum carneum Bieb.), pyrethrum tsinerariyelistny, or dalmatsky camomile (Pyrethrum cinerariifolium Trev.) — perennial herbaceous plants this. thistle family (Asteraceae). The first two look grows on the Alpine and subalpine meadows of the Caucasus, and the dalmatsky camomile growing on the Balkan peninsula and coast of the Adriatic Sea is cultivated in Moldova and in the south of Ukraine. The main active ingredients are the connections known under the name of pyrethrins and tsinerin which in the greatest numbers (from 0,2 to 1,5%) collect in baskets. Drugs of piretrovy camomiles — pyrethrum (powder of flowers) and flitsid (uaytspirtovy extraction) — use as insecticides for fight against flies, mosquitoes, louses, bugs, cockroaches (see. Pyrethroids ).

Fir Siberian (Abies sibirica Ledeb.) — evergreen tree up to 30 m high this. pine (Pinaceae), widespread in Western and Eastern Siberia from upper courses of the Aldan River to the Urals and further. Needles and young branches contain essential oil (2,5 — 3%). The main component of oil is bornyl acetate (30 — 60%) and free baras camphor which use for receiving synthetic camphor (see).

Club mosses — evergreen sporous herbaceous plants with the creeping dichotomizing branching stalks this. club-moss family (Lycopodiaceae). In medicine types of childbirth found application: Hyperzia and Lycopodium.

Club moss lamb's succory [Hyperzia selago (L.) Bernh. (Lycopodium selago L.)] grows on mossy softwood forests in sowing. to the forest zone USSR. Contains from 0,4 to 1,1% of alkaloids of the hinolizidinovy nature among which the main are annotin, likopodin and psevdoselyagin. 5% apply the broth of a grass of a club moss-barantsa possessing strong emetic action at treatment of patients hron, alcoholism.

Club moss club-shaped (Lycopodium clavatum L.) grows almost on all to forest and forest-tundra zones of the USSR. Other relatives. types — a club moss flattened (L. complanatum L.) and club moss year (L. annotinum L.) — are eurysynusic in softwood forests of the European part of the USSR, Siberia and the Far East. Disputes of a club moss club-shaped and other specified types are called vegetable sulfur (see).

Plantain block (Plantago psyllium L.) — annual herbaceous plant different from other types of a plantain lack of the sheet socket and much-branched leaf-bearing stalk. Grows in Transcaucasia, it is entered into industrial culture. Prepare mature seeds («a block seed», Sem. Psyllii) and a grass in an initial blossom. The chemical structure is similar to a plantain big. «The block seed» is applied as an easy purgative. From a fresh-gathered grass prepare the juice of a plantain applied as bitterness (see) and Plantaglucidum.

Plantain big (Plantago major L.) — perennial herbaceous eurysynusic plant this. plantain family (Plantaginaceae). Grows at roads, on fields, meadows and in weed places. All parts of a plant contain slime, carotinoids, ascorbic to - that, Ki's vitamin bitter substances, a glycoside aukubin. The greatest part of slime (to 40%) contains in seeds. Leaves of a plantain are a part of collecting teas for cough. Juice is fresher than a grass (Succus Plantaginis), preserved by alcohol, apply at anacid gastritises and hron, colitis. From leaves receive drug Plantaglucidum containing mix of polysaccharides. Other close types — a plantain average are allowed to use (P. media L.) and plantain lanceolate (P. lanceolata L.).

May-apple thyroid (Podophyllum peltatum L.), may-apple Himalaya (Podophyllum emodi Wall.) — perennial herbaceous plants (color. this fig. 31). barberry (Berberidaceae). The homeland of a may-apple thyroid — the woods of North America, a may-apple Himalaya — mountain forests of Kashmir. In the USSR the culture of both types is mastered. Rhizomes of a may-apple contain resinous substances of not studied structure and phenolic connections — the lignana which are derivatives of podophyllotoxin. From rhizomes receive smolopodobny drug Podophyllinum (see).

Voronov's snowdrop (Galanthus woronowii Lozinsk.) — perennial bulbous plant (color. this fig. 32). amarillisovy (Amaryllidaceae). Endemic of the foothill woods of the Western Transcaucasia; it is entered into culture. As medicinal raw materials prepare bulbs which contain alkaloids Galantaminum (to 0,15%), galanthin, lycorine (apprx. 0,1%), etc. Galantaminum (see) has antikholinesterazny properties. For receiving Galantaminum use also leaves of an endemic of mountain forests of Tajikistan and Uzbekistan of Victor's ungerniya (Ungernia victoris Voed.) — bulbous plant of the same family. For the purpose of expansion of a source of raw materials are offered Krasnov's snowdrop (G. krasnovii A. Grossh.) — the endemic of Adjara also belotsvt summer (Leucojum aestivum L.) — endemic of the Crimea.

Sunflower one-year (Helianthus annuus L.) — powerful annual plant this. thistle family (Asteraceae). It is widely cultivated in the different countries. As raw materials use mature seeds, ray florets and leaves. Seeds contain up to 38% of fatty oil (Oleum Helianthi), a cut in pharm, to practice use as solvent and a component of linimentums and ointment bases.

Artemisia — a perennial herbaceous plant this. thistle family (Asteraceae).

Wormwood bitter (A. absinthium L.) — eurysynusic plant weed. The grass contains essential oil (0,5 — 2%) and bitter substance absinthin. The main components of oil are oxygen derivatives of bicyclic terpenes (alpha and beta tuyony and tuyol in a free and esterified look) and azulenes. Absinthin also contains azulene cycles in the structure. From a grass and leaves prepare tincture (Tinctura Absinthii) and dense extract (Extractum Absinthii spissum) which are a part of gastric drops (tincture), tablets and pills (extract). The specified drugs are used as hot (see). Grass and leaves — a usual component of «appetizing» and cholagogue collecting.

Wormwood Taurian (And. taurica Willd.) grows in steppes of the Crimea and the North Caucasus on clay solonetzic soils. The grass contains 1 — 2,5% of essential oil. The main component of essential oil — a sesquiterpenic bicyclic lactone Tauremisinum (see). The grass is used as raw materials for receiving Tauremisinum.

Wormwood wormseed (A. cina Berg.) — desert forb, endemic of the Southern Kazakhstan Region and some districts of Tajikistan. And especially in flower baskets contain in leaves, young stalks a bicyclic sesquiterpenic lactone santonin. Content of santonin in the flower baskets collected in a stage of budding exceeds 2,5%; in process of blooming of buds its contents reduces to zero. Flower baskets and leaves contain also essential oil (to 3%), a part to-rogo are cineol (70 — 80%) and seskviartemizol. The flower buds known under the name «wormseed seed», and received from them santonin (see) apply as helminthicides. Essential oil («Darminolum») is used as the antiseptic agent and also irritating and a revulsive. Formation of santonin is peculiar to many types of a wormwood, but its significant amounts collect, except a wormseed wormwood, only in Shovits's wormwood (Artemisia szovitsiana Bess.) and wormwood zailiysky (A. transiliense Poljak.).

Renal tea, or orthosiphon staminate (Orthosiphon stamineus Benth.) — a macrotherm (color. this fig. 33). a mint family (Lamiaceae), acclimatized and entered into industrial culture in the form of an annual plant in Adzharian by the ASSR. Leaves (collect a flash) contain triterpenovy saponins of group alpha amirina, a bitter glycoside ortosifonin, essential oil (0,2 — 0,6%), organic to - you (to 1,5%), tanning agents (5 — 6%), etc. Apply broths from leaves as diuretic. The diuretic effect is followed by the strengthened allocation from an organism of urea, uric to - you and chlorides.

Scurfy pea kostyankovy (Psoralea drupacea Bge.) — bush this. bean (Fabaceae), growing in Central Asia. As raw materials collect fruits and roots which are rich with furocoumarins (Psoralenum, isopsoralenum, etc.). Raw materials are a source of receiving Psoralenum (see).

A motherwort — see. Motherwort .

Crayfish tails — see. Mountaineer snake .

Rauwolfia snake (Rauwolfia serpentina Benth.) — long-term evergreen bush (color. this fig. 34). a dogbane family (Apocynaceae), growing on the Hindustan and Indochina peninsulas, in Sri Lanka and in Indonesia; it is entered into culture in Transcaucasia. Rhizomes and roots contain more than 20 indole alkaloids which sum reaches 1 — 2%. Among them are almost valuable Reserpinum (see) and Ajmalinum (see). On composition of alkaloids and pharmakol, snake are close to action to Rauwolfia Rauwolfia emetic (R. vomitoria Afz.), growing in Congo, and Rauwolfia greyish (R. canescens L.), growing in Caribbean countries.

An emetic root — see. Ipecacuanha .

Rhubarb Tangut (Rheum palmatum L., var. tanguticum Maxim.) — large perennial herbaceous plant this. buckwheat (Polygonaceae). In a wild look meets in mountain forests of Central China; in the USSR there are considerable industrial plantations. Roots and rhizomes of a rhubarb contain two groups of active ingredients: antraglikozida (to 6%) and tannoglikozida (to 12%). Aglikonami in antraglikozida are anthraquinones reum-oemodin, hrizofanol, fistsion, Rhine and an aloe oemodin. Roots and rhizomes are raw materials for receiving the following drugs of a rhubarb: powder of a rhubarb, extract of a rhubarb dry, tablets of a rhubarb. In water drugs laxative action of antraglikozid, in spirit (extract) — the knitting action of tannoglikozid is more shown. The nature of effect of drugs (laxative or knitting) in many respects is defined also by a dose: in small doses generally knitting action of tannoglikozid, and in big — laxative action of antraglikozid is shown.

Rhodiola pink, or gold root (Rhodiola rosea L.) — a perennial herbaceous plant this. a houseleek family (Crassulaceae), growing in polyarnoarktichesky and Alpine regions, in the flat and mountain tundra, in Mountains Altai, Eastern Siberia, on Tien Shan and the Far East (color. fig. 35). Rhizomes contain phenolic connections among which the main thing is p-oksifeniletanol also its glycoside salidrozid (rodiolozid). Besides, rhizomes contain also tanning agents (to 20%), essential oil (to 0,9%), organic to - you among which prevails gallic to - that. Liquid extract of a gold root possesses a promoting effect on c. N page and ability to increase body resistance to adverse effects (adaptogenny effect). In this respect drugs of a rhodiola are close to drugs araliyevy (a ginseng, an eleuterokokk).

A camomile pharmaceutical — see. Camomile .

Rue odorous (Ruta graveolens L.) — semi-shrubby plant this. rutic (Rutaceae). In a wild look grows in the Crimea; it is cultivated in a southwest part of the USSR. The grass of a rue contains essential oil (to 1%), rich with cineol, and a flavonoidny glycoside of routines (see. Bioflavonoida ).

Mountain ash ordinary (Sorbus aucuparia L.) — well-known tree this. a rose family (Rosaceae), the USSR extended almost in all territory of the European part, in the Urals, the Caucasus and in Siberia. As raw materials use the mature fruits collected after the first frosts. They contain a significant amount of beta carotene (to 18 mg of %), P and S vitamins (to 200 mg of %), sugars (to 8%), sorbite, organic to - you (apple, lemon), bitter and tanning agents. Fruits of a mountain ash are a part of polyvitaminic collecting.

Mountain ash black-fruited [Aronia melanocarpa (Michx) Elliot.] — bush this. rose family (Rosaceae). The homeland — North America. It is widely cultivated in the USSR. Berries contain a complex of the flavonoids having P-vitamin activity (Rutinum, hesperidin, meletin, cyanidine, catechins, etc.). The general maintenance of flavonoids can reach 2000 mg of %. Contain in berries also ascorbic to - that, organic to - you, microelements and sugar (to 10%). Fresh berries and unfermented juice (Succus Aroniae melanocarpae) apply to prevention of a P-vitamin deficiency and to treatment of an idiopathic hypertensia. With the same purpose apply received from the dried-up crushed press of berries of a tablet (Tabullettae vitamini P ex fructibus Aroniae melanocarpae).

A salep — see. Orchis .

The Sekurinega is semi-shrubby, or vetvetsvetny [Securinega suffruticosa (Pall.) Rehd.; synonym of S. ramiflora Mull-Arg.] — gonochoristic bush this. a spurge family (Euphorbiaceae), growing in the Far East (color. fig. 36). Collect escapes which contain alkaloids of a hinolizidinovy structure. The main alkaloid — Securininum (see) which in the form of nitrate is applied as the means stimulating c. N of page.

Senna — see. Senna .

Jacob's ladder blue (Polemonium coeruleum L.) — perennial herbaceous plant (color. this fig. 3 7). phlox family (Polemoniaceae). Grows almost in all territory of the USSR; it is entered into industrial culture. All parts of a plant contain triterpenovy saponins (see) which in the greatest numbers (to 20 — 30%) collect in roots and rhizomes. Drugs of a Jacob's ladder (broth and dry extract) apply as expectorants (see).

A scopolia — perennial herbaceous plants this. solanaceous (Solanaceae).

Scopolia karnioliysky (Scopolia carniolica Jacq.) grows in zap. the districts of Ukraine, in Moldova, in the North Caucasus and in Transcaucasia; it is entered into culture (color. fig. 38). All plant contains tropane alkaloids, their greatest number (to 0,6%) — in rhizomes with roots which are industrial raw materials for receiving atropine (see), Hyoscyaminum (see) and Scopolaminum (see).

Scopolia Himalaya [S. stramonifolia (wall.) Sem.] in a wild look grows in Nepal in a vlazhnolesny mountain zone; it is acclimatized in the USSR. Roots of a scopolia Himalaya contain alkaloids (to 4%), including more than 0,7% of Hyoscyaminum (see) in this connection are very valuable industrial raw materials for production of salts of tropane alkaloids — Hyoscyaminum, Scopolaminum, etc.

Scopolia Tangut (S. tangutica Maxim.) grows in Northern Tibet and other districts of Central Asia; it is acclimatized in the USSR. As raw materials prepare the grass containing up to 3% of tropane alkaloids, edges is valuable industrial raw materials for receiving atropine (see), Hyoscyaminum (see) and especially Scopolaminum (see) which is contained in a grass in quantity to 0,4%.

Sumac tanning (Cotinus coggygria Scop.) — the branchy bush, is more rare a tree this. sumach (Anacardiaceae), growing in the Caucasus, in the Crimea and in the south of Ukraine. Raw materials are the leaves containing up to 25% of tanning agents. Receiving is an industrial source tannin (see).

Blackcurrant (Ribes nigrum L.) — branchy bush this. saxifrage family (Saxifragaceae). It is widespread on all European part of the USSR, in Siberia, in the Caucasus; it is widely cultivated. Contain in mature berries ascorbic to - that (to 400 mg of %), vitamins P (to 1000 mg of %), B4, B2, carotinoids. Berries are rich with sugars (to 17%), apple and lemon to-tami (to 4%), anthocyanins and other flavonoids. Vitamin concentrates and syrups are made of fresh berries. The dried-up berries, and also leaves of blackcurrant which are also rich ascorbic to - that (to 400 mg of %) and other vitamins, are a part of vitamin collecting.

Licorice, or licorice: licorice naked (Glycyrrhiza glabra L.) and licorice Ural (Glycyrrhiza uralensis Fisch.) — perennial herbaceous plants this. bean (Fabaceae) with powerfully developed systems of the underground bodies which are consisting of rod roots and departing from them horizontally creeping, quickly growing rhizomes — stalon (color. fig. 39). Large thickets of a glycyrrhiza naked are available in lower reaches of Don and Volga, in the North Caucasus, in East Transcaucasia, the Western Kazakhstan and especially in the basin of the Amu Darya River. The licorice Ural is widespread in vost. and yuzh. the districts of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, and also in yuzh. steppe districts of Western and Eastern Siberia. Raw materials are roots and rhizomes of a glycyrrhiza which contain a triterpenovy saponin glitsirrizinovy to - that (in the form of salts), aglikony a cut is glycyrrhetinic to - that, and sugar — a steam room glucuronic to - that. Glitsirrizinova to - you can contain in raw materials to 20%; its existence caused intensive, luscious and sweet taste of a licorice root and its drugs. Pharmacological active agents are the flavonoids (3 — 4%) which are also contained in a root among which the main are likviritin, lakrizid, likurazid and glabrozid. In a licorice root there are a lot of sugars, pectic and proteic matters and starch. From roots and rhizomes of both species of a glycyrrhiza receive the following drugs: extract of a licorice root of dry (Extractum Glycyrrhizae siccum) and extract of a licorice root of dense (Extractum Glycyrrhizae spissum) which apply as expectorants. The root of a glycyrrhiza is a part of collecting chest No. 2 (Species pectorales No. 2), and extract of a glycyrrhiza — structure of an elixir chest (Elixir pectorale, S. Elixir cum extracto Glycyrrhizae) which also apply as expectorants. Besides, the root of a glycyrrhiza is a part of diuretic collecting — collecting diuretic No. 1 (Species diureticae No. 1) and collecting diuretic No. 2 (Species diureticae.№ 2), and also composition of powder of a licorice root of the complex (Pulvis Glycyrrhizae compositus) applied as an easy purgative. Roots and rhizomes of a glycyrrhiza use and as raw materials for receiving drugs liquiritonum, Glycyrramum and granules of Flakarbin.

Liquiritonum — the drug containing the sum of flavonoids from roots and rhizomes of a glycyrrhiza. Contains not less than 55% of flavonoids counting on likurazid. It is applied as antiinflammatory, spasmolytic with and antiacid cure for hyperacid gastritises, a peptic ulcer of a stomach and a duodenum.

Glycyrramum — the monoreplaced ammonium salt glitsirrizinovy to - you, the glycyrrhiza allocated from roots naked, has the antiinflammatory effect caused by moderately stimulating influence on bark of adrenal glands. Drug is used at bronchial asthma, allergic dermatitis, eczema and other diseases. It is possible to appoint drug together with glucocorticoids for nek-ry reduction of their dosage. It is contraindicated at organic lesions of heart, abnormal liver functions and kidneys.

Granules of Flakarbin (Granulae «Flacarbinum») — the combined drug, each 100 g to-rogo contain a likurazid and meletin 2 g, sodium-carboxymethyl cellulose and pectin on 10 g, glucose of 76 g. Apply to treatment of patients with a peptic ulcer of a stomach and a duodenum.

Richter's solyanka, or cherkez (Salsola Richteri Kar.). — tree or high bush (color. this fig. 40). goosefoot family (Chenopodiaceae). Grows on desert sands in Central Asia. All plant contains alkaloids of the isoquinolinic nature Salsolinum (see) and Salsoliinum. As raw materials serve mature fruits which may contain up to 1,4% of alkaloids.

Pine ordinary (Pinus silvestris L.) — large tree this. pine (Pinaceae), forming the woods (borons), it is preferential on sandy soils. Use kidneys, needles, essential oil (turpentine), pitch (rosin), tar, wood charcoal. Pine kidneys contain essential oil, pitch, bitter and tanning agents, are rich ascorbic to - that; are a part of diuretic collecting and collecting for cough. The needles of a pine contain essential oil (to 1,3%), pitch (7 — 12%), tanning agents, ascorbic to - that to 0,3%, carotinoids. From needles receive the pine extract applied to the strengthening bathtubs.

Terebenthene, or the gallipot which is contained in the pitch courses penetrating wood and secondary bark of a pine is typical balm; represents solution of pitch (rosin) in essential oil (turpentine). It is applied at preparation of some plasters.

The gum spirit of turpentine purified turpentine cleared (Oleum Terebinthinae rectification). contains up to 75% of pinene. It is applied in ointments and linimentums as local irritative and a revulsive at rheumatic pains, to inhalations at diseases of upper respiratory tracts and to refreshing of air in hospital rooms. The turpentine purified is used also as raw materials for receiving terpin hydrate (see) and camphor (see).

Rosin contains up to 95% pitch to - t (pimaric, abietinic, sapinic) and apprx. 5% of rezen; is a part of adhesive and liquid plasters (see).

Pix liquida Pini receive dry distillation of shaving of pine wood; appoint as a part of ointments at eczema and itch.

Sophora tolstoplodny (Sophora pachycarpa C. A. Mey) — a perennial herbaceous plant this. bean (Fabaceae) from desert districts of Central Asia and Kazakhstan (color. fig. 41). The grass contains hinolizidinovy alkaloids (2 — 2,5%) Pachycarpinum (see), soforamin, Motrinum. Is a source of receiving Pachycarpinum.

Sophora Japanese (Sophora japonica L.) — large tree this. bean (Fabaceae). The homeland — China and Japan; it is acclimatized in Central Asia, the Crimea and in the Caucasus. Flowers contain the flavonodovy glycoside of routines collecting in a phase of budding in quantity to 20%; fruits contain up to 10% of Rutinum. From flowers of a Sophora allocate Rutinum (see Bioflavonoida) which is applied to prevention and treatment hypo - and avitaminosis of River. From fruits prepare tincture; it is applied to irrigations, washings and lotions for acceleration of an angenesis at wounds and trophic ulcers.

An ergot — see. Ergot .

A ninety-knot — see. Mountaineer bird's .

Rest-harrow pashenny (Ononis arvensis L.; O.'s synonym of hircina Jacq.), rest-harrow prickly (Ononis spinosa L.) — perennial herbaceous plants this. bean (Fabaceae). The rest-harrow pashenny grows in forest-steppe and steppe zones of the European part of the USSR, in the Caucasus and Altai. A rest-harrow prickly — the Central European plant; in the USSR meets only in zap. districts of Ukraine. As raw materials are used by roots which contain izoflavonovy glycosides ononin and onospin and small amounts of essential oil, resinous, tannic and other substances. Apply in the form of broth or tincture as diuretic (see) and local styptic cure for hemorrhoids.

Sterkuliya platanolistny (Sterculia platanifolia L.) — high tree this. sterkuliyevy (Sterculiaceae). The homeland — China and Japan; in the USSR it is widespread on the Southern coast of the Crimea, the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, in Azerbaijan and Central Asia. Seeds of a sterkuliya contain caffeine (see). From leaves prepare tincture, edges contains alkaloids of the purine nature. Apply as the means stimulating c. N of page

Stefanie smooth [Stephania glabra (Roxb.) Miers.] — gonochoristic ligneous liana (color. this fig. 42). lunosemyannikovy (Menispermaceae). The homeland — tropical zones of Asia; the ASSR is cultivated in Adzharian. Stefanie — one of the most high-alkaloidal plants of the globe. In Stefanie's tubers of a domestic origin 6 — 8% of alkaloids, in tops of escapes — to 1% collect. The main alkaloids are Hyndarinum, rotundin, tsikleanin, etc. From tubers and tops of escapes of Stefanie allocate the hydrochloride of Hyndarinum possessing moderate tranquilizing, light sleeping pill and hypotensive action.

Kombe's Strophanthus (Strophanthus Kombe Oliv.), Strophanthus setaceous (Strophanthus hispidus DC), Strophanthus attractive (Strophanthus gratus Franch.) — grassy lianas or the climbing bushes this. dogbane family (Apocynaceae). Kombe's Strophanthus wildly grows in East Africa, and two other types of Strophanthus — in Zap. To Africa. Plants with a characteristic fruit — the difficult leaflet consisting of two shares which are horizontally dispersing, reaching together nearly 1 m of length. In leaflets there are spindle-shaped seeds bearing the awns terminating in a plumose silver-white silky cop. Collect mature seeds, cops delete. Seeds contain cardiac glycosides (kardenolid) before which names or products of their hydrolysis put Latin letters K, H, G (initial letters of Latin names of types). So, e.g., in seeds of the main industrial type — Kombe's Strophanthus — the main glycoside is K-strofantozid, contents to-rogo reaches 2 — 3%. K-strofantozid is primary glycoside formed aglikony by K-strophanthidin and sugars cymarose and two molecules alpha and beta glucose. At enzymatic eliminating of alpha glucose the secondary glycoside K-strofantin-beta is formed (on 3 glucose remaining on the end of a sugar chain). At the subsequent eliminating of beta glucose when at the aglikena there is only a molecule of sugar of cymarose, the tertiary glycoside is formed tsimarin (see). In seeds along with K-strofantozidom there are listed above semi-products and other relatives on a structure of a kardenolida. The structure of glycosides in seeds of Strophanthus setaceous is similar to Kombe's Strophanthus, but their quantity is less. In seeds of Strophanthus attractive the main glycoside is G-strophanthin, contents to-rogo can reach 6%. This glycoside differs from K-strophanthin in the fact that a sugary part at it is presented only by one molecule of rhamnose. G-strophanthin is known also under the name «uabain» (according to the name of the strelny poison received by the population of the Western Africa). From seeds of Strophanthus receive the tincture containing the sum of all glycosides of this plant. Besides, from seeds of Strophanthus of Kombe receive strophanthin K (see. Strofantin ), and from Strophanthus attractive — crystal and G-stro-fantin which is used as the standard for establishment of activity of drugs of Strophanthus.

Sumach tannic (Rhus coriaria L.) — bush or tree this. sumach (Anacardiaceae), growing in the Caucasus, in the Crimea, Turkmenistan on open dry stony slopes. Leaves contain 13 — 25% of tanning agents, miritsitrin and other flavonoids. They are valuable raw materials for receiving medical tannin (see).

Everlastings uliginose (Gnaphalium uliginosum L.) — annual herbaceous plant this. a thistle family (Asteraceae), growing on water meadows, on coast of the rivers, on the drying-up swamps in the European part of the USSR. Collect all plant in a blooming period. The everlastings contains carotinoids, resinous substances, traces of essential oil, flavonoids. Use in the form of infusion at treatment of stomach ulcer and a duodenum. Oil extraction from a grass apply outwardly to treatment of wounds.

Sferofiza solonetzic [Spliaerophysa salsula (Pall.) DC] — a perennial herbaceous plant this. bean (Fabaceae), growing in dry foothill steppes and in semi-deserts in Central Asia, in the Caucasus, in Western and Eastern Siberia (color. fig. 43). Collect a grass, in a cut alkaloid contains Sphaerophysinum (see).

A thermopsis — see. Thermopsis .

Timian ordinary (Thymus vulgaris L.) — forb this. mint family (Lamiaceae). In a wild look grows in Spain and in the south of France; it is cultivated in Ukraine, in Krasnodar Krai and Moldova. The grass of a timian contains about 1,5% of essential oil, components to-rogo are methyl-isopropyl phenol and carvacrol. Liquid extract of a timian is a part of the combined drug Pertussinum (Pertussinum) used as an expectorant (see) and an antibechic (see). Essential oil is raw materials for receiving methyl-isopropyl phenol (see).

Caraway seeds ordinary (Carum carvi L.) — biannual herbaceous plant this. umbrella (Apiaceae), the USSR growing in forest and forest-steppe zones of the European part and Siberia, in the Caucasus; it is cultivated in Ukraine and in the Voronezh Region. Fruits contain essential oil (3 — 6%), the main components to-rogo are D-limonene and carvon. Essential oil is effective at a meteorism, stimulates secretory function of digestive glands. It is used preferential in the food industry.

The ptarmigan-berry is ordinary, or a bear ear [Arctostaphylos uva-ursi (L.) Spreng.] — an evergreen bush this. heather (Ericaceae), the USSR, widespread in the woods of the European part, Siberia, the Far East and in the mountains of the Caucasus. Leaves of a bearberry contain a glycoside ursin (to 8%), methylursin and tanning agents (to 35%). Broths from leaves of a bearberry apply as disinfecting and diuretic (see) at inflammatory diseases of a bladder and uric ways.

A shamrock — see. Watch trifoliate .

A bogbean — see. Watch trifoliate .

Pumpkin ordinary (Cucurbita pepo L.), pumpkin large (Cucurbita maxima Duch.) — vegetable plant this. pumpkin (Cucurbitaceae). Pulp of fruits contains up to 16 mg of % carotene (see). Mature fruits («melons») serve as raw materials for industrial receiving a concentrate with contents to 40 000 mg/kg of carotene.

Yarrow ordinary (Achillea millefolium L.) — perennial herbaceous plant this. a thistle family (Asteraceae), the USSR growing almost in all territory, except sowing., desert and semidesertic districts. Leaves and inflorescences contain about 0,8% of the essential oil containing hamazulen and different terpenes. Bitter taste of a grass is caused prokhamazuleny and alkaloid betonitsiny (methyl betaine) which pass into water and spirit drugs. The grass contains phthiocol in the quantity sufficient for manifestation of active styptic action. Infusions of a grass apply as aromatic bitterness (see) to improvement of appetite and as anti-inflammatory drug (see) at gastritises. Liquid extract of a yarrow is appointed as styptic means (see) at hemorrhoidal, uterine and other bleedings. The grass of a yarrow can be used for receiving azulene.

Ungerniya Victor — see. Voronov's Snowdrop .

Fennel ordinary, or fennel pharmaceutical (Foeniculum vulgare Mill.) — long-term, in culture a biannual herbaceous plant this. umbrella (Apiaceae). It is cultivated in Ukraine and in Krasnodar Krai. Fruits of fennel contain

4 — 6% of essential oil. The main component of oil is p-propenyl anisole (to 60%). Besides, oil contains fenchone (10 — 12%), alpha pinene, camphene, beta fellan - drains and aromatic compounds (methyl chavicol, anisic aldehyde, etc.). Fruits of fennel are a part of carminative collecting (Species Carminativae), and also structure of chest and laxative collecting, compound powder of a licorice root.

The fennel oil (Oleum Foeniculi) received by distillation of the crushed fruits is applied as carminative and an expectorant, and also used for improvement of taste of mixtures. Fennel oil is a part of fennel water (Aqua Foeniculi), to-ruyu receive mixing of 1 h oil from 1000 h water and apply as carminative means (see).

The violet is three-colored, or pansies (Viola tricolor L.), a violet field, or Viola arvensis Murray — annual or biannual herbaceous plants this. violet (Violaceae). Meet everywhere; grow on fields, meadows, among bushes. The grass contains Rutinum, antotsianovy glycosides delphidin, peokidin and violanin, and also essential oil, carotinoids, ascorbic to - that and saponins. Infusion of a grass is applied as an expectorant (see).

Horsetail field (Equisetum arvense L.) — eurysynusic sporous plant this. hvoshchovy (Equisetaceae), growing on meadows, waste grounds, ravines. The grass contains to 5% of a triterpenovy saponin of an ekvizetonin, flavonoids, including a flavonolovy glycoside inherent to horsetails ekvizetrin, insignificant amount of alkaloids (equisetin, etc.) and to 25% silicon to - you in the soluble form connected with organic compounds. Broth of a grass is applied as diuretic (see). Besides, the grass is a part of diuretic teas.

Cinchonic tree, or cinchona tree reddish (Cinchona succirubra Pavon), Cinchona ledgeriana Moens cinchona tree, cinchona tree pharmaceutical (Cinchona officinalis Hook fil.) and other types (to 40) and kinds of the sort Cinchona this. a madder family (Rubiaceae) — the evergreen trees which are wildly growing only in wet mountain forests of South America. Are widely cultivated in the different countries of Southeast Asia, in Indonesia (island of Java) and in tropical Africa. Bark of trunks and branches, and also in roots contains about 30 alkaloids of a quinolinic row, including quinine (see), quinidine (see), tsinkhonin and tsinkhonidin, the representing paired stereoisomers. Bark of cinchonic trees of selection grades can contain about 20% of alkaloids. Except alkaloids, are present at bark also cinchonic and hinno-tannic to - you, with to-rymi alkaloids are connected. For production of galenovy drugs (extracts) and pharmaceutical broths bark of a tsinkhota reddish, and is applied to production of salts of quinine and quinidine — bark of a cinchona tree of Ledger.

Gossypium — a plant this. malvovy (Malvaceae). Wild-growing types of a cotton are bushes or trees, but cultivate them as annual herbaceous plants. In the USSR in the irrigated districts of the Central Asian republics and in a smaller measure in Transcaucasia grades of a cotton woolly, or American are cultivated (G. hirsutum L.), and dlinnovoloknisty, or Egyptian (G. barbadense L.). After withdrawal from mature boxes lumps of cotton are processed on a simple and purified cotton. Cotton serves also for production of bandage and a gauze. The cotton oil received from the seeds separated from hairs is used in pharmacy similar to other fatty oils (for preparation of oil emulsions, solutions etc.). From cotton wool receive a collodion (see) and other cellulose derivatives going for preparation of ointment bases and other pharmakotekhnologichesky purposes. Bark of roots of a cotton, to-ruyu collect after cleaning of boxes, contains phthiocol, a little ascorbic to - you, tanning agents. Bark extracts apply as styptic means. Leaves of a cotton use for production lemon to - you.

Hop ordinary (Humulus lupillus L.) — a perennial grassy climber with hooked spinules this. hemp (Cannabinaceae). In a wild look meets on coast of the rivers, in dumetums and on edges of the light woods in the European part of the USSR, in the Caucasus, the South of Western Siberia, Altai and Central Asia. It is cultivated commercially. Use the fruits called by hop cones which contain essential oil (2%), a large amount of pitches, bitterness, valerian to - that, alkaloid humulin. Infusions from cones of hop possess sedative and diuretic action. Cones of hop are a part of soothing tea.

Chicory ordinary (Cichorium intybus L.) — perennial herbaceous plant this. a thistle family (Asteraceae), growing almost everywhere; it is cultivated commercially. Roots contain glycosides of not studied structure and inulin (see). Broths from roots of chicory apply as the means increasing appetite and improving digestion. In the industry from roots of chicory receive the inulin processed into fructose.

Thyme (Thymus serpyllum L.) — a small long-term forb from this. mint family (Lamiaceae). Very polymorphic look consisting of smaller types and forms (depending on conditions of growth). As raw materials use the grass of a thyme containing essential oil (0,1 — 0,6%), the main components to-rogo are methyl-isopropyl phenol and carvacrol. In addition to essential oil, contain in a thyme ursolovy and oleanolovy to - you and flavonoids. The thyme as well as timian, as an expectorant is applied (see).

Chaga — see. Birch mushroom.

Lobel's false hellebore (Veratrum lobelianum Bernh.), false hellebore white (Veratrum album L.) — redivives this. a lily family (Liliaceae), growing in forest and forest-steppe zones (on V. — to Transbaikalia). All parts of a plant contain alkaloids (see) (in a rhizome with their roots to 2,4%, in a grass to 0,5%) which concern to group yerveratrovy (yervin, rubiyervin, etc.) and tseveratrovy (protoveratridine, the term, etc.) alkaloids. All of them are steroid alkaloids: in them are combined property of both alkaloids, and steroid saponins (glycoalkaloids). Drugs of a false hellebore of Lobel are used against cutaneous parasites of the person and animals.

The train is a three-separate, or scrofulous grass (Bidens tripartita L.) — an annual herbaceous plant this. a thistle family (Asteraceae), growing almost everywhere except for the Arctic. The train contains a significant amount of carotinoids, a flavonoid lyuteolin and its glycoside, traces of essential oil and tanning agents. The grass of a train is widely applied by hl. obr. at various diathesis.

Bird cherry ordinary [Padus racemosa (Lam.) Gilib., synonym of Prunus padus L.] — tree or bush this. rose family (Rosaceae). It is widespread in the European part of the USSR, in the Caucasus, in Western Siberia. Leaves, flowers, bark and fruits contain a glycoside dl-mandelonitrile gentiobioside, tanning agents, and in fruits, besides, apple and lemon to - you and apprx. 5% of sugars. Fruits of a bird cherry are a part of gastric tea; have astringencies and are applied as antidiarrheal means.

Bilberry — see. Bilberry .

Nutgalls — see. Oak of luzitanskiya .

Garlic (Allium sativum L.) — perennial bulbous plant this. lily family (Liliaceae). It is widely cultivated. Bulbs contain a thioglycoside alliin, chipping off flying phytoncidal substance allitsin. Besides, bulbs contain essential oil, pentasulphides, phytosterols, a little ascorbic to - you are a part to-rogo. Garlic possesses bactericidal, fungicidal and antivermicular action, increases secretion and motor function went. - kish. path.

Nuxvomica, or nux vomica (Strychnos nux vomica L.) — a listopadny tree this. loganiyevy (Loganiaceae), growing in all territory of tropical Asia. Seeds contain indole alkaloids (to 2 — 3%), including strychnine and brucine. Seeds serve as raw materials for receiving dry extract to a nuxvomica (Extractum Strychni siccum), the tinctures to a nuxvomica (Tinctura Strychni) and strychnine (see) applied as stimulators of c. N of page.

Betony forest (Stachys sylvatica L.), betony woolly (Stachys lanata Jacq.) — perennial herbaceous plants this. a mint family (Lamiaceae), growing almost in all territory of the European part of the USSR, in the Caucasus and in Western Siberia on soils wet, rich with a humus. The grass contains derivatives of sincaline and stachydrine — a betaine, trigonellin, cordianine, etc. (see Betaines), tanning agents, ascorbic to - that, essential oil, resinous substances. Drugs of a betony forest render to lay down. action at uterine bleedings and subinvolution of a uterus.

Celandine big (Chelidonium majus L.) — herbaceous perennial plant this. poppy (Papaveraceae), the USSR which is found almost in all territory; grows in shady places. All bodies of a plant contain alkaloids (helidonin, heleritrin, sangvinarin, berberine, sparteine, etc.): in the sum in their grass to 1,5 — 2%. Besides, at a grass there are redoxon (to 200 mg of %), carotinoids (to 15 mg of %), organic to - you, flavonoids and saponins. In traditional medicine drugs of a celandine are used outwardly for cauterization of warts and condylomas, inside — at diseases of a liver and gall bladder.

Sage medicinal (Salvia officinalis L.) — long-term forb (color. this fig. 44). mint family (Lamiaceae). In the USSR it is cultivated in Moldova and in Ukraine, in Krasnodar Krai. Collect leaves which contain essential oil (to 2,5%), tanning agents and triterpenovy to - you (ursolovy, oleanolovy). In the form of infusion leaves of a sage apply as anti-inflammatory drug (see) to rinsing of an oral cavity and a throat.

A dogrose — see. Dogrose .

A skullcap Baikal (Scutellaria baicalensis Georgi) — a perennial herbaceous plant this. a mint family (Lamiaceae), meeting in the steppe and forest-steppe Regions of Transbaikalia and the Far East (color. fig. 45). Roots with rhizomes contain flavonovy glycosides: skutellyarin and baykalin, tannic (2,5%) and resinous substances. Tincture of a skullcap has the moderate hypotensive and calming effect; it is offered for use at early forms of an idiopathic hypertensia.

Sorrel horse (Rumex confertus Willd.) — perennial herbaceous plant this. buckwheat (Polygonaceae), USSR, eurysynusic on the most part of the territory. Roots contain up to 4% of derivatives of anthraquinone, 8 — 12% of tanning agents, coffee to - that and flavonoidny connections. Broths of roots apply as astringents (in small doses) and as purgatives (in high doses).

Eucalyptus ball (Eucalyptus globulus Labili.) — a large fast-growing tree from this. myrtaceous (Myrtaceae), the root system to-rogo strongly branches and lasts on long distances parallel to the surface of the soil. Using ability of eucalyptuses to remove large amounts of water from the soil, they are cultivated for drainage of boggy areas. Eucalyptuses grow in the USSR on the Black Sea coast of the Caucasus, hl. obr. in Adjara and Abkhazia. Use also Mayden's eucalyptus (Eucalyptus maideni Muell.) and eucalyptus ashy (Eucalyptus cinerea Muell.), being the most frost-resistant. Leaves of an eucalyptus contain up to 3% of essential oil, the main component to-rogo is cineol (to 80%), and to 10% of tanning agents. Infusion and broth from leaves and eucalyptus oil widely apply as antiseptic agents (see) for rinsings and inhalations at diseases of upper respiratory tracts, and also for treatment of fresh and contaminated wounds, inflammatory diseases of female generative organs (a lotion, washing). Besides, from leaves of an eucalyptus produce the following drugs: briquette of a leaf of an eucalyptus, Tinctura Eucalypti and eucalyptus oil. The briquette of a leaf of an eucalyptus (Bricetum folii Eucalypti) is prepared from the crushed leaves. Briquette with a squared size of 120 X 65 X 10 cm, weighing 100 g; it is divided by grooves into 10 equal shares on 10 g. For preparation of broth take one segment on 1 glass of water. Tinctura Eucalypti apply inside as an anti-inflammatory and antiseptic agent at diseases of upper respiratory tracts and an oral cavity and also as a calmative.

Eucalyptus oil (Oleum Eucalypti) is applied as antiseptic and anti-inflammatory drug to rinsings and inhalations at inflammatory diseases of upper respiratory tracts (on 15 — 20 drops on a glass of water). «Inhalyptum», the tablets «Pectusin» (Tabulettae «Pectusinum»), drops «Eucatolum» (Guttae «Eucatolum»), an aerosol of Kamfomen (Aerosolum «Camphomenum») and Edcamonum ointment (Unguentum «Efcamonum») is a part of complex drug for inhalations. The specified drugs, except for Edcamonum ointment, apply at inflammatory diseases of upper respiratory tracts. Edcamonum ointment is applied outwardly as a revellent at arthritises, miozita, neuralgia, etc.

of Evkommiya vyazolistny, or the Chinese gutta-percha tree (Eucommia ulmoides Oliver) — a tree this. evkommiyevy (Eucommiaceae), growing in China; in the USSR it is cultivated in Abkhazia. From the bark of branches containing chlorogenic and coffee to - you, aukubin and a gutta, prepare the tincture and liquid extract possessing a nek-eye hypotensive action. Apply at an idiopathic hypertensia.

Eleuterokokk is prickly, or a svobodnoyagodnik prickly (Eleutherococcus senticosus Maxim) — a large bush this. araliyevy (Araliaceae), growing in the cedar and broad-leaved woods of Primorsky Krai, is more rare in Priamurye and on the Southern Sakhalin (color. fig. 46). Pharmacological active agents are glycosides (eleuterozid) which structure is completely not opened as they and their genina are very labile connections. From rhizomes with roots of an eleuterokokk prepare liquid extract (Extractum Eleutherococci fluidum) which is applied as tonic.

The ephedra is hvoshchevy, or an ephedra hvoshchevidny (Ephedra equisetina Bunge), an ephedra average, or desert (Ephedra intermedia Schrenk), an ephedra tall (Ephedra procera Fisch. et Mey.), ephedra two-spicate, or ordinary, Kuzmicheva grass (Ephedra distachya L.) — bushes this. efedrovy (Ephedraceae). Ephedra hvoshchevy (color. fig. 47) and an ephedra average are typical for flora of mountain and foothill districts of Central Asia and Kazakhstan where they are prepared commercially. The ephedra tall grows in the same ecological conditions in the Caucasus, and an ephedra two-spicate — in steppe districts of the South of the European part of the USSR and further on V., almost in all territory of Kazakhstan and Western Siberia. All types of an ephedra contain aliphatic alkaloids L-ephedrine, D - psevdoefed-rin and L - N-metilefedrin. The ephedra hvoshchevy is richest with alkaloids (to 3%). The grass is raw materials for receiving ephedrine (see).

Orchis, a rain orchid (Platanthera), a kokushnik (Gymnadenia), anakampty (Anacamptis) — orchids this. an orchid family (Orchidaceae) which tubers apply under the general name Tubera Salep. All these types — small herbaceous plants with the wrong flowers, often floridly and beautifully painted (color. fig. 48 and 49). The root system consists of two tubers: old (maternal) and young, juicy (affiliated). Collect affiliated klubnekorn which can be two types — ovoid and palchatorazdelny: ovoid at Orchis simia Lam., O. mascula L., O. morio L., O. palustris Jacq., O. militaris L., O. purpurea Huds., O. picta Lois.; Platanthera bifolia (L.) L. C. Rich, P. chlorantha (Cust.), Reichenb., P. freynii Kranzl., Anacamptis pyramidalis Rich.; palchatorazdelny at O. latifolia L., O. maculata L., O. triphylla C. Koch, Cymnadenia conopsea (L.) R. Br. After collecting tubers immerse in boiled water on. several minutes to kill ability them at storage to germination. Tubers of a salep contain a lot of slime (to 50%), starch (to 31%) and to 5% of proteic matters. From powder prepare mucous extraction (Mucilago Salep) applied at went. - kish. diseases in quality the enveloping means (see).



Bibliography: The atlas of medicinal plants of the USSR, under the editorship of N. V. Tsitsin, M., 1962; Woolf. Century and M and l of e e in and O. F. World resources of useful plants, Reference book, L., 1969; Muravyeva D. A. A pharmacognosy (with fundamentals of biochemistry of medicinal plants), M., 1978; M at r and in e in and D. A. and and m of m of e of r-m and A. F N. Tropical and subtropical medicinal plants, M., 1974; Resources of wild medicinal plants of the USSR, under the editorship of A. A. Fedorov, etc., century 1 — 3, L. — M, 1968 — 1975; Turova A. D. Medicinal plants of the USSR and their use, M., 1974; Utkin L. A., Gammerman A. F. and Nevsky V. A. The bibliography on medicinal plants, the Index of domestic literature, the manuscript 17 — the 19th centuries, printing editions 1732 — 1954, M. — L., 1957; Flora of the USSR, under the editorship of V. L. Komarov, t. 1 — 30, L., 1934 — 1960.


D. A. Muravyeva.

Яндекс.Метрика