MEDICAL OFFICE — the supreme body of management of medical matter in Russia in the first half of 18 century which played a significant role in development of system of health protection and medical education. M to. arose in 1721 from Pharmaceutical order (see) according to the offer of an archiater of I. L. Blyumentrost during the general reorganization of central office of country government which was carried out by Peter I.
The head M. to. — archiater (see) the doctor of medicine was appointed. In 1732 M. to. began to submit directly to the cabinet — the supreme governmental body consisting at Anna Ioannovna.
According to Peter I's decree of 1721 of one of duties of M. to. there was a determination of the right for medical practice. In 1735 M. to. approved the «General regulations about hospitals» which defined for a long time structure and states of hospitals, duties of officials, system of training of teachers at hospital schools from domestic doctors, etc.; all military hospital in the medical relation were subordinated to M. to. In 1735 positions of subdoctors for the aid to regimental doctors were entered into medical states of all regiments. In 1736 the «Regulations of field drugstores» which defined their structure, states and functions are developed and approved.
Medical aid of N to the civilian population was improved; so, in 1737 in all provincial and largest country towns positions of policemen of doctors are founded. Since 1739 city drugstores were organized. In 1754 reform of medical education is carried out.
A number of important actions is connected with stay in chapter M. to. since 1753 P.3. Kondoidi: creation of schools of «babichy business» (obstetrics), foundation of the state medical library. In 1763. Replaced medical office Medical board (see).
Bibliography: L. F dragons. Readings on medical history of Russia, SPb., 1896; Lakhtin M. Yu. Meditsina and doctors in the Moscow state (in pre-Pertine Russia), M., 1936; Novombergsky N. A medical structure in pre-Pertine Russia, Tomsk, 1907; P and l to and N V. N. Emergence of medical office in the 18th century and the first period of its activity, Owls. zdravookhr., No. 4, page 63, 1974; Purely - in and the p Ya. A. Sketches on stories of the Russian medical institutions of the 18th century, SPb., 1870; Shershavkin S. V. About reorganization of the Pharmaceutical order, Owls. zdravookhr., No. 2, page 56, 1958.
B. D. Petrov.