MEDICAL JUSTICE — body of provincial management of medical and sanitary matter in pre-revolutionary Russia. Century at. were founded in 1797. Originally both civil, and military medical institutions and ranks, and since 1805 — only civil were under their authority. V. submitted at. till 1804 directly medical board (see) also consisted of three members — the inspector, the operator (surgeon) and the obstetrician appointed medical board from among doctors and the headquarters doctors. At the end of 18 and the beginning of 19 century in V.'s structure at. the advanced Russian doctors entered: D. V. Volchenetsky, M. L. Gamaley, V. G. Zhukovsky, D. I. Ivanov, A. F. Maslovsky, And. V. Protasov, D. S. Samoylovich, P. S. Simontovsky, etc.
According to the instruction developed by the member of medical board S. S. Andreevsky, V. at. carried out inspection of medical institutions, drawing up medico-topographical descriptions, the organization of fight against infectious diseases, smallpox vaccination, court. - medical examination, control of activity of drugstores, private medical practitioners, the organization of obstetric aid, etc.
After liquidation of medical board and transfer of medical management to maintaining the Ministry of Internal Affairs (1804) V.'s role at. gradually decreased — they became an appendage of provincial office, being engaged generally medico-politsey remove questions. Since 1812 at. submitted to governors, and behind medical department of the Ministry of Internal Affairs the management by them only on special medical questions was left.
In 1865 at. were everywhere (except Poland and the Siberian provinces) are transformed to medical departments as a part of provincial board.
In prerevolutionary years medical departments consisted of the provincial medical inspector, his assistant, the druggist and the clerk. The inspector possessed the right of the general supervision on medical questions to provinces and in some cases overseeing by passing of medical affairs through provincial board. For consideration scientific medical of questions so-called consultative presence was convoked, in Krom district, policemen doctors, sometimes representatives of medical societies and private practitioners as required participated. The medical inspector carried out also police guardianship over medical - a dignity. organization of zemstvoes and city «self-managements».
Bibliography: Palkin B. N. Russian hospital schools of 1 8th century and their pupils, M., 1959, bibliogr.; Complete collection of laws of the Russian Empire, Meeting the 1st, t. 24, 28, SPb., 1830, Meeting the 2nd, t. The 40, 2 otd., SPb., 1867.
B. N. Palkin.