MEDICAL EXAMINATION (inspection, survey) — one of forms of active medical care to the population directed generally to definition of the state of health and identification of early forms of diseases.
Organizationally the first M. of the lake in our country began to be carried out in the 20th when the resolution SNK RSFSR of October 13, 1922 established obligatory preliminary and periodic medical survey of working teenagers. Gradually these types of medical examination began to cover workers of a number of professions of various industries of the national economy working in harmful or severe conditions of work (the order Narkomzdrava of RSFSR of March 1, 1924). In the next years the list of the productions and professions which are subject to M.'s coverage of the lake extended more and more and regulated by the relevant orders M3 of the USSR coordinated with the All-Union Central Council of Trade Unions.
Conditionally M. of the lake can be subdivided into three main types: preliminary, periodic and target. In addition, in science and practice of health care M. of lakes which it is difficult for one of these types to carry to any, such as one-time comprehensive medical examination of various groups of the population, e.g. M. the lakes dated for a population census, pretrip medical inspection of drivers of transport (air, sea, river, railway, automobile) and other M. of the lake meet.
Preliminary M. the island are carried out at revenues to work (study) for detection of diseases (states) which are a contraindication to work (training) at this enterprise (by this profession).
Periodic M. of the lake — periodic control of the state of health working at this enterprise (in establishment), studying in educational institutions. Their purpose — identification of the beginning patol, process for acceptance of the medical and other measures directed to the prevention of development of this process or its elimination.
Target M. the island are carried out, as a rule, for identification of early forms of certain diseases (e.g., new growths, tuberculosis, glaucoma, a diabetes mellitus, etc.) also cover various groups of the organized and unorganized population. In some cases target M.' carrying out the lake is reasonable to combine the lake with preliminary and periodic M.
Preliminary and periodic M. of the lake depending on the contingent of persons concerning whom they are carried out can be conditionally divided into three groups.
M. of the lake of the working industrial enterprises (institutions) where exist defined professional harm concern to the first group; the second group M. make the lake of persons which profession can promote spread of diseases among the population (employees of the food enterprises, catering establishments, water supply, child care facilities, etc.); M. of the lake of teenagers, youths of premilitary age and recruits in the Soviet Army, pupils of technical training college, the highest and average educational institutions etc. concern to the third group.
The list of productions, the professions which are subject to coverage preliminary and periodic M. the lake, terms of surveys and the list of the specialists taking part in them are regulated by the order of the Minister of Health of the USSR No. 400 of May 30, 1969 and other documents.
Features of methods of carrying out and M.'s volume of the lake are defined by the purposes and problems of inspection. Special attention at M. of the lake is paid on identification of initial forms somatic, inf. diseases, diseases of skin, etc. in this connection they can be considered as preventive.
Islands carry out preliminary and periodic M. doctors of territorial policlinics, medical - a dignity. parts of the enterprises (institutions), clinics, policlinics of educational institutions, etc. Target M. the lake are carried out by doctors of the corresponding specialties of policlinics, the clinics specialized by BC, etc.
Materials M. of the lake are a basis of planning and carrying out to lay down. - the prof. and a dignity. - a gigabyte. actions at the enterprise (institution, educational institution, etc.).
M of the lake are an important form of selection of patients for medical examination (see. Medical examination ). Their value increases in connection with problem solving on transition to general medical examination of the population.
In Armed Forces of the USSR the order of carrying out M. of the lake is defined by the Charter of internal service of Armed Forces of the USSR (1977). Islands carry out m the doctor and the paramedic of a part. They are obligatory for: staff before carrying out safety inoculations; the persons which are constantly working in dining rooms in food warehouses, subjects to water supply, in baths, laundries, and hospital attendants (once a week); the soldiers appointed to work in dining rooms (are carried out before work); sergeants and soldiers, newcomers or returned to a part and so forth (see. Treatment-and-prophylactic providing Armed Forces of the USSR ).
See also Treatment-and-prophylactic help .
Bibliography: The organization of health care in the USSR, under the editorship of N. A. Vinogradov, t. 2, page 181, 240, M., 1958; The Grant on periodic medical examinations of the working industrial enterprises, under the editorship of A. A. Letavet, M., 1961, bibliogr.; Friedland I. G. Medical examinations working under harmful working conditions, L., 1963; Shakhgeldyantsa. E. Treatment-and-prophylactic help to workers of the industrial enterprises, M., 1978.
I. V. Shatkin, A. E. Shakhgeldyants.