MEDIASTINOGRAFIYA (Latin mediastinum a mediastinum + grech, grapho to write, represent) — X-ray inspection of a mediastinum and its bodies by artificial contrasting by means of administration in it of liquid or gas. Need of artificial contrasting of a mediastinum is caused by the fact that under natural conditions bodies of a mediastinum (owing to a small difference in optical density) at rentgenol, a research form the general homogeneous and intensive median shadow, against the background of a cut separate patol, educations come to light insufficiently accurately and quite often late. For the first time artificial contrasting of a mediastinum by means of isotonic solution of sodium chloride was carried out in 1931 Wren (To. Rehn) and Danelius (S. Danelius). Wren possesses also the term «mediastinografiya». In 1932 Half-ANOs (N. of Polano) and in 1933 Mr. G. Pannewitz used iodorganic water-soluble drugs for contrasting of a mediastinum. Contrast agents (Verografinum, Urotrastum, etc.) enter into a front mediastinum usually by a puncture of skin and hypodermic cellulose in the field of a jugular pole a needle with a wide gleam. Drug slowly fills kletchatochny spaces of a mediastinum, creating at the same time an intensive shadow of a bizzare shape, against the background of a cut normal anatomic formations, and also located here patol educations are shown in the form of defects of filling. The amount of the administered drug fluctuates from 50 to 200 ml. Pictures make usually in direct and side projections. If necessary to contrast the postmediastinum of the patient is put for 1,5 — 2 hours on a back. Contrast agents resolve within several hours; upon termination of a research they are partially deleted by suction. More the proposal of the Italian researcher Kondorelli was widely adopted (L. Condorelli, 1936) to use as the contrasting environments gases, napr, oxygen (see. Pnevmomediastinografiya ). The m has the greatest value at diagnosis of volume formations of a mediastinum — tumors, cysts, a retrosternal craw, etc. Its diagnostic efficiency increases at use tomographies (see). Contraindications to M.'s use: a mediastinitis, aortic aneurysms and other main vessels of a mediastinum, the expressed stenocardia, dekompensirovanny heart diseases, the general serious condition of patients. M.'s shortcomings: possibility of reactive inflammatory process in cellulose mediastinums (see); indistinct picture contrast because of high intensity of a shadow of a mediastinum.
Bibliography: Rozenshtraukh L. S., Rybakova N. I. and M. G Vanner. Radiodiagnosis of diseases of a respiratory organs, M., 1978, bibliogr.; Condorelli L. II pneumo-mediastino artificiale, Minerva med., v. 1, p. 81, 1936; F e 1 s o n B., Weinstein A. u. Spitz H. Rontgenologische Grundlagen der Thoraxdiagnostik, Stuttgart, 1974; Frommhold W. u. G e of h a r d t P. Erkrankungen des Mediastinum, Stuttgart, 1975.
L. S. Rozenshtraukh.