From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MECHANIZATION OF PRODUCTION — the use of cars and mechanisms allowing to carry out productions with the minimum expenses of manual skills. The essence of mechanization consists in replacement of the operations which are carried out manually, the operations made by car under control of the person. The m of the item can be partial («small-scale mechanization») and complex; the last creates premises for industrial automation (see) also covers as the main, and auxiliary types of works.

M of the item, being one of conditions of increase in labor productivity, promotes its essential simplification, increase in cultural technological level of workers, reduction of distinctions between intellectual and physical work.

The m of the item is created and implemented in the course of scientific and technical rearmament of the national economy. Most widely mechanization of manual skills is implemented in such industries as coal, mining, metallurgical.

One of the most important conditions of development of L. S. — its mass character and a krupnoseriynost which are carried out on the basis of standardization and unification of industrial output, separate details and nodes and also specialization and cooperation of the enterprises in production of industrial products.

Efficiency factor of mechanization of production as means of simplification of work is reduction of number of unskilled workers in the industry, agriculture and increase in number of the highly qualified specialists who are perfectly knowing control of cars and mechanisms.

Thanks to L. S. professions with hard physical work as, e.g., in coal (the luger, konogon), and others appear disappear: the operator of the combine, the clearing mechanized complex, the transport and delivery equipment, etc.

Work on the modern mechanized production is characterized by reduction of number sites of work, working on adverse under the terms of work, reduction of a power component, local character of a muscular exercise, monotony against the background of reduction of the general physical activity and increase in psychological loading.

Due to the irregularity and incompleteness of processes of L. S. still there are auxiliary operations with unqualified work of workers. In the conditions of incomplete local character of a muscular exercise is combined by L. S. with the monotony and bystry rate of movements imposed by car and also is frequent with the static mode of muscle performance. Long local muscular exercises can lead to emergence of the prof. of pathology from an overstrain, in particular to diseases of a musculoskeletal system.

At introduction of the mechanization reducing dynamic work of the person it is also necessary to pay attention to reduction of static work. The mechanized work together with it still often is combined with such adverse factors as noise, vibration, dust, gases, elevated temperature of air, etc. Their main sources are irrational productions, imperfection in the hygienic relation tekhnol, the equipment.

In parallel with introduction of mechanization of productions normal working conditions at the expense of heat insulation of the equipment, rationally organized ventilation, the correct placement tekhnol, the equipment, use of means vibro-and noise isolations shall be provided, to sealing of the raising dust nodes and units, etc.

Bibliography: Kosilov S.A. and Leonova L. A. Rabotosposobnost of the person and way of her increase, M., 1974; Ret-n e in V. M. Problems of occupational health at complex automation, L., 1971; Fiziologo-gigiyenichesky assessment of physical work in the mechanized production, under the editorship of A. I. Semenov, M., 1976.

Yu. P. Paltsev, D. I. Timokhin.