MATERNITY LEAVE (ustar. synonym maternity leave) — the release from work in connection with pregnancy and childbirth established by the Soviet legislation. These privileges are provided to all working women (workers, employees, collective farmers), at the same time both prenatal, and puerperal leaves are granted for 56 calendar days everyone with payment for this period of a grant of 100% of earnings irrespective of the seniority and belonging to labor union. Payment of a grant to women — to workers and employees — is made from means of the state social insurance, and to women — members of collective farms — from means of the centralized allied fund of social security of collective farmers. Students receive issues before childbirth and after the delivery on the same bases, the grant also of 100% is paid to them. In case of the complicated families or the birth of two and more children leave is after the delivery granted for 70 calendar days. Female mothers are granted partially paid child care leave before achievement of age of one year (it is entered step by step on regions of the country since 1981) by it and the former place of work and a position remains.
The number of days of a maternity leave joins working, days off and holidays. Have the right for issue not only working constantly, but also occupied on temporary and seasonal job.
The maternity leave has big sots. - a gigabyte. value. Prenatal issue promotes creation the woman of necessary conditions for strengthening of an organism and preparation for the forthcoming childbirth, for normal fetation. This issue is an important factor in providing a favorable result of pregnancy and childbirth. Postnatal issue is established also for the benefit of mother and the newborn taking into account time, during to-rogo in an organism of the woman the normal functioning of systems and bodies changed in connection with pregnancy and childbirth is recovered (see. Puerperal period ). At this time mother needs in special a gigabyte. the mode, and the child — in especially careful leaving and feeding.
Establishment of the beginning of prenatal issue (in 32 weeks of pregnancy) is based on anamnestic yielded and results of systematic objective inspection by the pregnant doctor by an obstetrician-gineko-log (see. Pregnancy, determination of term ). For the correct definition of duration of gestation and timely providing issue important that the woman for the first time addressed to clinic for women in early durations of gestation. If the actual duration of the maternity leave granted to the woman is more or less established by the law (56 days), then it does not affect puerperal issue — it remains without changes (does not increase and does not decrease).
In practice of clinics for women so-called calendars of pregnancy, or the obstetric calendars having an appearance of the calendar ruled tables, or a form of lines of type of the logarithmic, or rotating disks imposed at each other found application. Calendars of pregnancy facilitate definition of estimated day of childbirth and start date of prenatal issue, and then establishment (on the actual day of childbirth) day of the end of puerperal issue. During the use of any calendar for calculation of estimated day of childbirth and the first day of prenatal issue objective data of obstetric inspection of the pregnant woman shall be considered.
The grant on pregnancy is given for all days which are actually spent by the woman on prenatal issue. Day of childbirth is set off in postnatal issue as its first day.
Maternity leaves are granted by administration of the enterprises or institutions on the basis of leaves of temporary disability, to-rye the doctor the obstetrician-gynecologist of clinic for women gives out. At establishment of duration of puerperal issue (56 or 70 calendar days) the doctor considers the data received from maternity hospital: features of a course of childbirth, the made operations, a condition of the newborn, etc. To give leaves of disability obstetricians-gynecologists have the right to lay down. uchrezh-deshsh general profile or doctors-torapevty. In rural areas the right of delivery of leaves of disability on pregnancy and childbirth can be provided in accordance with the established procedure to paramedics and midwifes.
The woman who adopted the newborn child directly from maternity hospital is granted the paid leave — from the date of adoption before the expiration of 56 calendar days of life of the child. Registration of issue in this case carries out medical institution, the child was born in Krom. At the same time in a leaf of disability it is allowed to put down the words «postnatal issue».
The list of diseases, and also complications of pregnancy, childbirth and a puerperal period, at to-rykh puerperal leave is granted for 70 calendar days, is provided in the special instruction of M3 of the USSR.
Bibliography: Abramova A. A. Labor protection of women, page 96, M., 1978; The Reference book on obstetrics and gynecology, under the editorship of JI. S. Persianinova and I. V. Ilyin, page 23, M., 1978.
H. E. Granat.