The MASTER MILITARY-MEDICAL CONTROL of the MINISTRY OF DEFENCE of the USSR (TsVMU MO USSR) — the central operating controls health service of Armed Forces of the USSR.
With a victory of Great October socialist revolution a priority in the field of military medicine was radical reorganization of old government and first of all elimination of a harmful mnogovedomstvenno-sta in the management of military-medical service. As the first steps measures for reorganization of the Main thing military and sanitary (till 1909 military-medical) the management existing in the Russian army were taken. The deep defects caused by character, the public and social relations and the political system, economic backwardness of Russia, the heartless and bureaucratic attitude of ruling circles towards needs of staff of army were inherent to the military-medical organization of pre-revolutionary Russian army. The management of various aspects of activity of military-medical service was separated, dispersed on various ministries and departments. So, evacuation business was under authority of the General Staff, and military and sanitary managements of districts submitted to the Main Thing Military Sanitary to Management (MTMSM) only on single questions, sanitary parts of fronts were not subordinated to it at all. Even the military and hospital case was submitted GVSU only shortly before World War I — in 1911
4 on December (17), 1917 I. Lenin signed the decree of Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR «About appointment of Board for management of the Head military and sanitary department» as a part of doctors M. I. Barsukov, I. S. Weger,
A. N. Vinokurov and M. V. Golovinsky. In January, 1918 the decree of Council of People's Commissars of RSFSR founded the supreme medical body of the Workers' and Peasants' government — Council of medical boards (see). Medical boards of all national commissariats, including and board of GVSU were its part. The device GVSU became stronger the medical shots devoted to revolution, the principles of the Soviet system of the leadership in business of health care persistently were implemented into its activity. In August, 1918 GVSU entered as independent department founded, agrees the Constitution of RSFSR adopted in July, 1918, uniform public authority of the management of the Soviet health care — the National commissariat of health care of RSFSR. There was a system of double subordination of GVSU — on the one hand, it submitted to the people's commissar of health care (the chief of GVSU was at the same time the deputy people's commissar of health care), with another — had to follow instructions of the national commissioner on military affairs (later — the national commissioner on military and sea affairs). Double subordination brought a certain complexity in activity of the device GVSU, but at the same time it allowed during the difficult period of foreign military intervention and Civil war to aggregate and most effectively to use forces and means of civil and military health care for medical providing field army, fight against epidemics. During this period of GVSU concentrated the management of all aspects of activity of military-medical service both in the back, and on fronts. In September, 1918 the management of all questions of evacuation of wounded and patients was completely transferred to it. In 1920 the order of the Revolutionary Council of War of the Republic (RCWR) was issued, according to Krom of GVSU consolidated the military hospital attendant
of Nov case of all childbirth of weapon and all commissariats. In 1929 by the resolution of the CEC and SNK USSR GVSU (renamed by this time into Military and sanitary management of RKKA) it was placed from Narkomzdrava under full authority to the national commissioner on military and sea affairs. In the subsequent the organizational and regular structure and the name GVSU changed and improved according to development of military science and military medicine. Eminent persons of military medicine headed management: M. I. Baranov (1918 — 1920 and 1928 — 1937), 3. P. Solovyov
(1920 — 1928), E. I. Smirnov
(1939 — 1947 and 1955 — 1960),
N. I. Zavalishin (1947 — 1952), P. G. Stolypin (1952 — 1955) etc.
At the very beginning of the Great Patriotic War, in August, 1941, in connection with sharp complication of tasks of military-medical service and need of implementation of operating control by it in exclusively difficult conditions Sanitary management of Red Army was reorganized into the Head voyennosanitarny department. Were its part: managements — lechebnoevakuatsionny, shots, supply with medical and sanitary and economic property and a number of departments. Besides, the chief medical specialists — the surgeon, the therapist, the infectiologist, the toxicologist, etc. entered into staff of GVSU. The chief medical specialists were consultants, organizers and inspectors on the different industries of military medicine. During war anti-epidemic management and a number of departments were entered into the state of GVSU. The leadership in all activity of military-medical service and first of all the organization of medical providing field army was assigned to GVSU, the leadership in evacuation of wounded and patients, the organization to lay down. the help, sanitary inspection and actions on anti-epidemic and sanitary himi-cheskomu to providing Red Army. GVSU played an important role the organizations of expansion of forces and means of medical service from the beginning of war, in establishing all work of medical structure of field army, in bystreyshy implementation in practice and the fullest implementation of system of stage treatment of wounded and patients with their evacuation to destination (see System of medical and evacuation providing). Throughout the Great Patriotic War of GVSU performed highly skilled and effective management of activity of medical service in field army and in the back of the country, coordinated and directed work of an operating controls of medical service of fronts, armies, and also evacuation centers, developed and implemented the advanced principles and methods of work in practice of medical providing, provided medical service to all necessary.
Extremely important value for improvement of medical providing field army the instructive documents developed by GVSU on the basis of the analysis of the state of affairs on places practically on all activities of medical service and also office letters of the chief of GVSU had the CENTRAL MILITARY CLINICAL HOSPITAL 165. So, only in 1942 the directives and circular letters devoted were sent to field army: the specialized help to wounded, since the army area; to a stop of bleeding; to the getting wounds of a stomach; to the account, diagnosis, prevention and treatment of shock, etc.
Work of Academic medical council at the chief of GVSU which combined the largest scientists and specialists of military medicine was important. Entered into the Academic council: E. I. Smirnov (chairman), H. N. Burdenko, H. N. Anichkov, M. N. Akhutin, T. E. Boldyrev,
V. I. Voyachek, S. S. Girgolav,
N. I. Zavalishin, F. G. Krotkoye, P. A. Kupriyanov, L. A. Orbeli,
V. N. Shamov, V. N. Shevkunenko, etc. (see Medicine military). In the period of the Great Patriotic War three enlarged plenums of Academic medical council (5, 6 and 7) took place, its sections actively worked. Implementation in practice of medical providing provisions of the uniform field medical doctrine was promoted by the 5th and 6th plenums of Academic medical council held in February and August, 1942. On them such major problems of military medicine as organizational bases of medical ensuring fighting of troops, a pathogeny, clinic and treatment of traumatic shock, treatment of lightly wounded were considered; the first results of activity of medical service in the Great Patriotic War were summed up, ways of further improvement of medical providing troops are planned, in particular the basic foundation of the organization of specialized medical aid is laid. Decisions and recommendations of plenums of Academic medical council in short terms were led up to all medical structure of Armed Forces.
Successful problem solving, facing in days of the Great Patriotic War GVSU, in many respects was promoted by attraction to the management of medical service of the organizers, specialists, scientists who had wide experience, high qualification, comprehensive preparation. Throughout all war of GVSU E. I. Smirnov headed. Prominent scientists — the chief surgeon of Red
Army H were the chief medical specialists. N. Burdenko, the chief therapist — wind M. S. V, the chief epidemiologist — I. D. Ionin, T. E. Boldyrev (he is the chief of anti-epidemic management), the chief hygienist — F. G. K of rotok, the chief toxicologist — Yu. V. Drugoye. The big contribution to the organization of medical ensuring fighting of troops, to accurate and effective work of bodies of GVSU was brought: N. I. Zavalishin, Yu. M. Volynkin, P. M. Zhuravlev, To. D. Timankov, etc.
During the post-war period of GVSU solved problems of the organization of medical ensuring reorganization of Armed Forces, their transition to peace situation, reorganization of medical service, expansion of work on generalization, the analysis and deep studying of the experience accumulated by medical service for years of the Great Patriotic War. Soon the scientific and technological revolution in military science set the tasks of development of problems of medical ensuring fighting of troops in the conditions of use of new means of conducting armed struggle, to studying of an etiology, pathogeny of the fighting pathology caused by use of means of mass defeat, searches of means and methods of rendering medical aid and treatment at these types of defeats. Versatile large-scale scientific and organizational practical activities of medical structure of Armed Forces directed and coordinated GVSU. Due to the reorganization of Armed Forces during the post-war period the orga-nizatsionno-regular structure and the name of management changed. In 1962 management was transformed to the Master military-medical control of MO USSR (TsVMU MO).
TsVMU MO performs management of activity of medical service of Armed Forces, the general planning of medical providing Armed Forces, organizational meto-dicheskoye the management to lay down. - the prof. and anti-epidemic work in troops and on the fleet, providing medical service with all types of medical property, etc. Are command headed by the chief of TsVMU a part of TsVMU MO USSR — the chief of health service of Armed Forces, the chief medical specialists of the Ministry of Defence of the USSR, management and departments of the main activities of medical service. At TsVMU the Academic medical council including the leading scientists in the field of military medicine and practical workers works. Руководств© military-medical service the deputy minister of defense — the chief of the back of Armed Forces of the USSR carries out.
See also Meditsin military.
Bibliography: Barsukova. I. Great October socialist revolution and organization of the Soviet health care, M., 1951; Sketches of history from
the Vyatka military medicine, under the editorship of D. D. Kuvshinsky and A.S. Georgiyevsky, JI., 1968; Smirnov E. I. War and military medicine, 1939 — 1945, M., 1979; Encyclopaedic dictionary of military medicine, t. 1, Art. 1286 of M., 1946. t. and. Komarov