From Big Medical Encyclopedia

MALAYSIA, the Federation Malaysia — the state in Southeast Asia, occupies the southern part of the Malay Peninsula and a northern part of the island of Kalimantan — Saravak and Sabah. Enters the Commonwealth headed by Great Britain. The area — 332,8 thousand; the population apprx. 12,6 million people (1977). The capital — Kuala Lumpur (the St. 1 million zhit., 1977).


Administrative division — 13 states and the federal territory Kuala Lumpur. Ofits. language — Malayan.

M — constitutional monarchy. The head of state — the Supreme governor elected for 5 years from among sultans — hereditary governors of states. The legislature of federation — the parliament consisting of the senate and the House of Representatives executive power belongs to the cabinet.

The most part of the peninsula Melaka and interior the lake of Kalimantan is occupied by mountains and hills, along coasts lowlands, on a considerable extent boggy are located. Climate in the south of the peninsula Melaka and on the lake of Kalimantan equatorial, to the north — monsoonal, subtropical.

M — preferential agrarian country with rich natural resources. The basis of the economy production of rubber and tin (apprx. 40% of world production), and also forest products, products of oily and coconut palm trees, rice and another makes page - x. products, and also cement, bauxites, iron ore, oil.

M.'s population is characterized by complex ethnic structure. In 1974 Malayans made 46,8%, Chinese of 34,1%; besides, in the country there live natives of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, etc. The population is placed extremely unevenly. Average population density 30 people on 1, but in certain districts it reaches 200 — 300 persons. The natural movement of the population in 1970 — 1975, on ofitsa., but not to the complete data provided in editions of WHO (for 1000 the population): birth rate 33,2, general mortality 6,5, natural increase 26,7. Child mortality 36,4 on 1000 live-born.

The structure of incidence takes the leading place inf. and parasitic diseases, malaria and tuberculosis are especially widespread. In 1974 in the Western Malaysia malaria, tuberculosis, infectious hepatitis, a typhoid and paratyphus, bacillar dysentery, epidemic parotitis, a leprosy, syphilis, a trypanosomiasis and tetanus most often were registered; in Sabah — malaria (St. 27 thousand cases), tuberculosis, bacillar dysentery, flu, infectious hepatitis and gonorrhea; in Saravake — cholera, malaria, tuberculosis, a typhoid and a paratyphoid, infectious hepatitis and bacillar dysentery. Over all country measles, scarlet fever, chicken pox, diphtheria and other children's infectious diseases were observed.

Accidents, cardiovascular diseases, malignant new growths, vascular damages of a brain, pneumonia, tuberculosis, bacillar dysentery, amebiasis, enterita, etc. were the main reasons for the cases of death registered in 1971 in the Western Malaysia; the important place is taken by the perinatal mortality connected with congenital anomalies of development, a birth trauma, a hypoxia and other reasons.

Federal mines - in health care headed by the minister bears responsibility for all activity in the field of health care, except for the scheduled maintenance assigned to municipal authorities.

In states there are public health departments headed by the chief medical specialists appointed mines-vom. The states are divided into the districts headed by specialists of health care. City authorities and municipal councils have public health departments. In 1975 in M. there were 310 hospitals on 40171 beds (from 21,8 to 36,6 beds on 10 000 population in various states).

In 1972 the ambulatory care in Malaysia was polyclinic departments of BC, the medical centers, out-patient clinics and private medical practitioners. Women's and children's consultations, dental surgeries, antitubercular, venereologic, antileprotic clinics functioned. Extra hospital help in M. in considerable volume was given by paramedical staff. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of M. — see. Treatment and prevention facilities abroad .

In the country water handling is under construction: in rural districts of Sabah, Saravak and vost. coast of the Malakksky peninsula. In 1974 in the country 1556 doctors (1,3 for 10 thousand population), 1563 medical assistants, 874 stomatologists, dentists and assistants to dentists, 474 druggists, 13 728 midwifes, sisters midwifes and their assistants, etc. medical staff worked. Security with medical shots is higher in the territory of the Western Malaysia.

Training of doctors is carried out on the medical f-takh created at Malayan (1963) and National (1973) high fur boots in Kuala Lumpur. In 1972 at Malayan un-those it is created stomatol, f-t.

In the Western Malaysia. Sabah and Saravake there are schools on training of medical assistants and other categories of paramedical staff.

Ying t of medical researches founded in 1900 in Kuala Lumpur in Krom works St. 500 employees, researches in the field of tropical diseases. It is central medico-biol. laboratory, training center and the center for production of vaccines and serums, but also, performs functions of the help research center.

Bibliography: Draft of the program budget for 1978 and 1979 financial years, Official documents of WHO No. 236, page 753, Geneva, 1977; The Fifth review of a condition of health care in the world (1969 — 1972), page 358, Geneva, WHO, 1977.

E. V. Galakhov.