MALAWI, the Republic of Malawi — the state in the Central Africa. The area is 119,3 thousand km 2 . Population of 5,6 million people (1977). The capital of Lilongwe (60 thousand zhit., 1975). Administrative division — 3 provinces. Ofits. languages — English and a chinyandzh.
M — the republic; enters the Commonwealth headed by Great Britain. The head of state and the governments — the president. The legislature is carried out by the president and national assembly (unicameral parliament), executive — the government.
The climate is equatorial, tropical monsoons.
M — the backward agrarian country. The basis of the economy — agriculture, a cut is a livelihood of 90% of the population. In the country tobacco, tea, a peanut, cotton, a maize, millet, rice, an ambercane is grown up. A small amount of iron ore, bauxites is got. A subsoil is studied a little. There are reserves of coal, asbestos, iron ore, uranium-bearing ores, gold. The industry is presented to hl. obr. the small enterprises for processing of page - x. raw materials.
The population of the country consists generally of relatives among themselves of the people of east group to a bow. Average density the St. 44 people on 1 km 2 (1977). The natural movement of the population in 1970 — 1972, on ofitsa. to the data provided in editions of WHO (on 1000 people): birth rate 50,5, general mortality 26,5, natural increase 24,0. Child mortality — 142,1 on 1000 live-born.
In the country incidence of infectious and parasitic diseases prevails, tuberculosis, malaria, typhus and paratyphus, dysentery, veins are widespread. diseases, geohelminthoses. In the Northern province it is eurysynusic vukhererioz, in Central — a tick-borne typhinia, in Southern — a leprosy, tuberculosis, incidence of a schistosomatosis is high. Also the diseases connected with defective food are widespread.
The health service in the country is headed by Min-in of health care. Stationary medical aid in 1971 appeared in 90 to lay down. institutions on 6023 beds (13,2 beds on 10 thousand population). Among them 8 BCs of the general type on 1855 beds, 49 local or rural BCs on 3697 beds, 31 medical centers on 110 beds, 1 maternity home on 79 beds and 1 psychiatric-tsa on 282 beds. 25 institutions on 3101 beds (51,5%) were under authority of the state. The name and content of work of healthcare institutions of M. not quite correspond to the concepts accepted in the USSR (see Treatment and prevention facilities abroad).
In 1975 in the country 104 doctors (1 doctor for 48,5 thousand population), 440 assistants to doctors, 7 dentists and 4 their assistants, 4 druggists and 1155 people of paramedical staff worked.
In the country there is one school for training of nurses and 3 schools for training of assistants to nurses.
Bibliography: World Health Statistics Annual 1973 — 1976, v. 3, p. 11, 150, Geneva, 1976; World Health Statistics Annual 1977, v. 1, p. 1, Geneva, 1977; World Health Statistics Report, v. 28, No. 11, p. 431, 1975.
A. A. Rozov.