MAIN CLINICAL MILITARY HOSPITAL of a name of the academician of H. N. Burdenko (since 1974. The main military clinical hospital) — the oldest military medical to lay down. the establishment providing rendering specialized medical aid and treatment of the military personnel, generals and officers in a stock and resignation, members of their families, workers and employees of the Soviet Army and also conducting military-medical examination of the military personnel. In hospital improvement of medical officers is carried out. Specialists of hospital conduct scientific development of urgent problems of military medicine, study the reasons of incidence of staff of AF of the USSR and develop actions for its decrease, give methodical help to military hospitals in medical and diagnostic work.
To. century of consistently was called: The Moscow general overland hospital (till 1802), the Moscow general military hospital (till 1907), Moscow general military hospital of the emperor Peter I (till 1918), since December 30, 1918 — the Moscow communistic Red Army military hospital. By the resolution SNK from 28/VIII 1944 g it is reorganized into the Main military hospital; in 1967 it is renamed into the Main clinical military hospital. In 1946 the name of the academician of H is appropriated to it. N. Burdenko.
In 1968. The decree of Presidium of the Supreme Council of the USSR for the achieved success in treatment-and-prophylactic providing the military personnel of G. to. century of is awarded the order the Labour Red Banner.
The hospital was founded under Peter I's decree from 25/V 1706 g and constructed in Moscow on the project of doctor N. L. Bidloo: «To construct gofshpital beyond Yauza the river... in the decent place, for treatment of the hurting people... And at that treatment to be to doctor Nikolay Bidloo and two doctors...». It is open on December 2 (on November 21), 1707 together with the Russia's first medical school for training of doctors (on 50 people).
The initial wooden two-storeyed building of hospital, in Krom patients, a drugstore, dissecting room and medical school accommodated, burned down in 1737. Wooden structures of hospital were destroyed by the fires in 1721, 1737 and in 1756. After the last fire in 1756 the first stone case was constructed. In 1798 — 1802 the architect I. V. Egotov, M. F. Kazakov's pupil, built the main stone building representing one of monuments of architecture of the beginning of 18 century.
Counted originally on 200 patients, in 1756 the hospital was expanded to 1000 places. In 1838 stone cases were connected in the form of a letter «P». In this look they also remain. By the beginning of World War I in hospital there were 1505 places.
The material and technical resources of hospital gained further development in Soviet period. In 1928 — 1930 two surgical cases, then connected in one complex were constructed. In 1965 the radiological center (the 3-storey building of a special design), in 1971 — the country's first cardiological center (the 8-storey case) is constructed. Are capitally converted as well the main old buildings.
From the very beginning of existence the hospital forms clinical base of various medical educational institutions: The doctor school, Medikokhirurgichesky school, Medicochirurgical academy, medical f-t Moscow un-that, Voyennofeldshersky school, advanced training courses of doctors, the Higher medical school (1920 — 1924), edges joined structure medical f-that 2 MSU. Since 1967 to. century of is used as clinical base for Military-medical f-that improvements of doctors at TsIU and for professional development of medical structure from other medical institutions.
Results of scientific and practical activities of hospital significantly influenced development of the Russian and Soviet clinical medicine. In hospital outstanding representatives of the Russian medical science worked: in the 60th 18 century — K. I. Shchepkin and I. P. Pogoretsky fighting for completing of medical school by domestic youth, for expansion and deepening of teaching to level «doctor's» for creation of the Russian medical textbooks, and afterwards D. S. Samoylovich, E. O. Mukhin, M. Ya. Mudroye, V. A. Basov, I. T. Glebov, etc. Here in 1848 — 1849 N. I. Pirogov taught hospital doctors technique of an anesthesia. In Soviet period in hospital worked as consultants: H. N. Burdenko, N. A. Bogoraz, V. N. Shamov, V. S. Levitte, M. M. Ditperikhs, G.F. Lang, N. S. Molchanov, A. A. Vishnevsky, etc. It promoted successful development in hospital of research. Its level especially increased after Great October socialist revolution: from 2400 scientific works published by doctors of hospital for the last 265 years in days of the Soviet power it was executed apprx. 2000. Nauchnopedagogichesky activity, and also equipment of hospital the perfect equipment promoted maintenance on a high level of medical work with use of the latest diagnostic and medical methods. From first years of existence of hospital for operations special «rooms» (operating rooms) are allocated. At hospital there was a pharmaceutical kitchen garden for cultivation of medicinal plants. In 1806 instead of «ward books» «mournful sheets» on each patient (a prototype of a case history) were entered. In 1848 — 1849 began to apply a radio and chloroformic anesthesia at operations. The first experiments of a hydrotherapy were made in hospital still by E. O. Mukhin. In 1850 there was already special balneary here. Soon it was equipped with the equipment for faradisation and galvanization. In 1886 in hospital one of the first in Russia the pasterovsky station was open. In laboratories of hospital, the special building for a cut it is constructed in 1894, were made a wedge., bacterial, and gigabyte. researches for needs of hospital and Moscow garrison. In 1903 X-ray department was organized. Before World War I the hospital had the physiotherapeutic equipment quite modern for those times, including the device for a diathermy.
In 1871 the order of the Minister of War use of work of nurses was authorized in hospital. A lot of work on treatment of wounded and patients was carried out in hospital in military years. So, during Patriotic war of 1812 the hospital accepted more than 17 thousand wounded and patients, during the Russian-Japanese war — apprx. 16 thousand, and for 3 years of World War I of St. 376 thousand victims.
In the years of civil war in hospital there was a medical aid to Red Guards, the staff actively participated in elimination of epidemic of a sapropyra.
From the first days of the Great Patriotic War on its base military-medical institutions for the front formed. In October, 1941 the hospital was evacuated in Gorky. A considerable part of hospital returned to Moscow in the middle of 1942, and since March, 1943 the hospital in full strength began to work in Moscow. From among 84% of wounded treated in hospital in the years of war were returned in a system.
During the post-war period in hospital improvement of specialized medical aid and treatment continued. Such specialized departments as anesthesiology and resuscitation, endocrinological, gastroenterological and others, the cardiological and radiological centers are organized were created. All these divisions are staffed by highly qualified personnel and equipped with the perfect medical and diagnostic equipment. In hospital worked in 1976 apprx. 40 doctors and candidates of medical sciences and 17 honored doctors of RSFSR. In radio-gramophones, the center departments of radio isotope diagnosis, radio surgical and therapeutic, engineering and physical laboratory, etc. Kardiol function. the center has departments of intensive observation and resuscitation, urgent cardiology, kardiol., kardiorevmatol., thoracic and cardiovascular surgery, functional diagnosis, etc.
Laboratories of an angiography, express diagnosis, artificial circulation are a part of the center. Wedge., biochemical, bacterial., virusol., tsitol., serol., gematol., immunol., gistol, laboratories, and also x-ray department, etc. are equipped with the modern equipment and provide wide use at inspection and treatment of sick modern medical and diagnostic techniques with the broad range. In hospital all types of physiotherapeutic treatment and physiotherapy exercises are provided, and the persons who had a serious illness can continue treatment in country sanatorium department.
Specialists of hospital direct medical and diagnostic and scheduled maintenance in the subordinated central policlinics. To. century of carries out scientific research, and also tests of new pharmaceuticals, the medical equipment, equipment and tools in close interaction with USSR Academy of Medical Sciences research institutes, Army medical college of S. M. Kirov, and also military hospitals of AF of the USSR.
Bibliography: Gilenko M. M. and Ponomarev P. S. Main military hospital of a name of the academician of H. N. Burdenko in anniversary year, Voyen. - medical zhurn., No. 10, page 40, 1967; History of the Moscow military hospital in connection with history of medicine in Russia, to its 200-year anniversary, 1707 — 1907, sost. A. N. Alelekov, M., 1907; Short history of the Moscow communistic military hospital. The Moscow general military hospital of Peter I, under the editorship of A. M. Krupchitsky, etc., M., 1943; Krupchitsky A. M. Firstborn of the Russian medicine, M., 1958; With I eat e to and S. A. The military-medical organization of the Russian army at Peter I, M., 1952; Works of the Chief military of hospital of a name of the academician of H. N. Burdenko, century 6, M., 1949; H and with t about in and the p Ya. A. Istoriya of the first medical schools in Russia, SPb., 1883.
G. A. Ponomarev.