MACROPHAGE FIXATION (Latin migratio resettlement; macrophages) — oppression of migration (movement) of macrophages of in vitro or in vivo under the influence of the substances mediators emitted by sensibilized lymphocytes as a result of impact on them of a specific antigen.
The macrophages (see) belonging to cells of system of mononuclear phagocytes (see) have ability to phagocytosis (see), to a pinotsi-toz (see), adhesions, migrations, etc. In 1894 P. N. Borisov, studying the phenomenon of a chemotaxis (see the Taxis), observed its oppression by proteins and peptones in rather high concentration. In 1932 Mr. A. R. Rich and W. Lewis determined the fact of suppression in vitro of migration of cells from pieces of tissue of sensibilized donors at addition in culture medium of a specific antigen (see Antigens). One of the first works on studying of T. George's research (M. of George) and Vaughan was m of m (1962) (J. E. Vaughan), to-rye observed that tuberculine (see) oppresses migration of the macrophages taken from exudate of an abdominal cavity of a Guinea pig, sensibilized to tubercular antigens (see the Sensitization).
Existence of the soluble factor oppressing migration of macrophages — MIF (English migration inhibitory factor), was shown in experiments, in to-rykh migration of normal macrophages was braked by nadosadochny liquid after centrifuging of a suspension of the sensibilized lymphocytes incubated with a specific antigen. It is established that MIF is allocated sensibilized T-lim-fotsitami with hypersensitivity of the slowed-down type and an allergy at an animal (see the Allergy).
It was shown that MIF is protein (and - a glycoprotein) about a pier. it is powerful (weighing) 25 Ltd companies — 55 Ltd companies. According to other data, a pier. the weight of MIF is lower. In the molecule MIF the disulfide bridges providing maintenance of the corresponding conformation of a molecule and cytophilous activity of a factor are found. MIF termostabilen, its activity remains after keeping of drug at — 20 ° more than 20 days. The factor is not dialyzed. Note that allocation by lymphocytes of MIF comes before manifestation of their proliferative activity in response to this or that antigen.
Braking of migration of peritoneal macrophages of the person, a mouse or a rabbit of MIF, received from lymphocytes of a Guinea pig, it was not succeeded to observe, however nadosadoch-ny liquid after centrifuging of sensibilized lymphocytes of the person, stimulated antigen, causes T. m of m of a Guinea pig.
Macrophages of a different origin react to MIF variously. E.g., staphylococcal enterotoxin B causes T. m of m of exudate of an abdominal cavity to a lesser extent, than braking of migration of alveolar macrophages. It is interesting that uabapn — the substance which is specifically inhibiting Na + + K+ - ATP-ase (KF 22.214.171.124), slows down migration of macrophages, but does not influence their phagocytal activity. Studying of T. m of m gained distribution because correlation between the number of MIF allocated by lymphocytes, and hypersensitivity disease of the slowed-down type in an organism of an animal sensibilized to this or that antigen was found. Among such antigens, except tuberculine and other antigens of mycobacteria, it is necessary to call Candida albicans antigens, streptococci and stafilokokk, bull seralbumin and other proteins, complex antigens of proteins with metals (chrome, nickel, cobalt, beryllium, etc.), antibiotics, graft-specific antigens (see Immunity transplant), and also the autoantigenny substances which are formed at many diseases of the autoimmune nature: diseases Krone (see Krone a disease), a glomerulonephritis (see), diseases of Hasi-moto (see Hashimoto a disease), etc.
MIF influences activity hell-nilattspklazy (KF 126.96.36.199) of macrophages and exchange intracellular cyclic 3\5' ~ AMF. With it, but - visible, the mechanism of its braking action on migration of macrophages is connected.
There are several methods of studying of T. m of m and migration of leukocytes. The most usable of them is in what the leukocytes of blood washed from serum mix with antigen, to - to rum they were sensibilizirovana. As control use the leukocytes which are not processed by antigen. The suspension of leukocytes is gathered in capillaries and placed in the special cells for an incubation during 24 hours at 37 °. In the course of an incubation there is a migration of the leukocytes which are fanlikely dispersing from the delayed end of a capillary tube. In the presence of antigen, to Krom there were sensibilizirovana lymphocytes, MIF is developed, and migration of leukocytes in this case is slowed down. The space occupied by the leukocytes which left a capillary, or its diameter are measured. The relation of the spaces occupied by leukocytes in the presence of antigen and in its absence, or the relation of lengths of diameters of these areas are called an index of migration. Migration of macrophages or leukocytes is considered slowed down if as a result of an incubation of leukocytes with antigen it was reduced more than by 20% of control size. During the determination of T. m of m by means of other method place a suspension of cells in a hole on a surface of the agar which stiffened on glass or agaroses. Measure diameter and the area of the circle formed by the leukocytes migrating under a layer of an agar (agarose) around a hole for an incubation period. Compare the area of the circle formed by the leukocytes incubated and not incubated with a specific antigen. The relation of these areas expresses an index of migration. Use also assessment of migration of cells from an agarous drop.
A. D. A to and G. P. Bondareva developed the test of braking of migration of leukocytes in vivo in an oral cavity. Reaction is simple on statement and is informative in those cases of an allergy when conducting provocative skin tests (see) contraindicated; full compliance between intensity of braking - migrations of leukocytes and a condition of an allergy was revealed.
See also Leukocytic tests, Mediators of cellular immunity.
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M e d at N and c y N. V. l, L and t in and - N about in V. I. and Y and r about z A. M. Mediators of cellular immunity and exchanges, - cellular interaction, M., 1980, bibliogr.; George M. a. Vaughan J. And. In vitro cell migration as a model for delayed hypersensitivity, Proc. Soc. exp. Biol. (N. Y.), v. Ill, p.:; H, 1962; Lou R. W. a. o. Mechanism of action ol' migration inhibitory factor (Ml'F), J. exp. Med v. 136, p. 589, 1972. L. D. Ado’